1. Is BD quantitative or qualitative?
    quantitative= measuring quantity bone mass or density
  2. is a bone density scan a good way to visualize a fracture?
  3. what role oes a tech play in accuracy and precision?
    techs mostly determine the precision in bone density and the machine is mostly accuracy

    want to be close to perfect.. be able to produce the same measurement each time!
  4. using a target analogy define what is accurate and what is precise?
    • accurate= want to be close to center of bulls eye each time
    • Precise= what to be all in the same are.. does not have to be close to bulls eye
  5. what are four different ways to characterize the skeleton in bone densitometry?
    • Weight bearing/ non weight bearing
    • axial or appendicular
    • central or peripheral
    • coritcol or trabecular
  6. the L spine would be classified how?
    Central, Axial, weight bearing, trabecular
  7. proximal femur would be classified how?
    central, axial, weight bearing and trabecular
  8. what percent of the body is trabecular bone? and what percent is corticol?
    20%=t 80%=c
  9. BMD is the measure of what?
    bone mineral content and bone mineral density
  10. QCT measures what?
    3 dimensional BMC and area (volume) === centimeters cubed
  11. can you do a serial measurement on two different machines to see if a persons bone density has changed over time?
  12. what does a T-score represent?
    compares a patient ave peak bone density to a young healthy 25 to 3- year old also called YA% young adult matched score
  13. what does a z score represent?
    compares the patients average value for an individual of the same age and sex.. also called AM% or age-matched score
  14. what is the different types of computers?
    Desktop, towers, minitowers, laptops
  15. what is software?
    operating systems utilities and applications
  16. what is hardware
    physical components of the computer
  17. what are peripheral devices used on a the computer?
    software, applications=monitors keyboards mouse any devices attached to computer by cable or communication using infrared waves
  18. what do bd machines use for peripheral devices
    infrared waves
  19. what are the major components to the computer?
    hardware, software, mother board, ram, slots
  20. what are the input and out put devices for the computer
    • input- keyboard mouse trackbar
    • output- monitor printer
  21. what type of computer port does a densitometer machine most commonly use
  22. what are the types of storage media
    magnetic media, tape media, optical media, flash
  23. how do you protect your data
    • harddrive
    • archive/ copy
    • backup daily and on more that on device
    • surge protectors
  24. how can humidity and extreme temps affect the harddrive
    strain the computer and cause them to overheat
  25. what letters represent the hard drive and floppy drive?
    • hard drive= c
    • Floppy= A
  26. what are some of the consequences if there we not quality control procedures done?
    • incorrect data,
    • time and money wasted,
    • medical management of patient may be adversely affected
    • interpretation by the physical based on incorrect data would be and error
  27. what is the min. number of days during the week that the QC should be done?
    3 days.. or everyday that you do an exam
  28. what is an anthromorphic phatom
    phantom that attempts to replicate particular region of the skeleton
  29. what are the 2 materials that can be used in anthromorphic phantoms to mimic bone
    • hydorxapatite
    • aluminum
  30. why was the european spine phantom developed and what is it used for mostly today
    • attempted to develop the perfect phantom
    • clinical trial research
    • expensive

    good for use of cross calibration on central densitometry
  31. what are the 2 charts mentionted in this chapter and how are they different? what are they used for?
    Shewhars--baseline values and control limits for specific phantom and machines

    cusum-- looking at amount of deviations from mean on each scan
  32. why are there filters applied to shewharts rules
    decrease false alarms
  33. what should you do if your phantoms BMD falls out of the range of normal or control range?
    repeat QC.. call mfg.. dont scan a patient
  34. what would cause machine shift?
    relocation of machine... maintenance.. change in tube or detector
  35. what would cause machine drift
    room condition... power supply.. aging of tube or detector
  36. what is an vivo study
    scans 60 to 100 patients with peak of osteoporotic patients included in the study
  37. what is vitro?
    uses a phantom to scan
  38. when does you used a vivo or vitro study?
    when you get a new densitometer
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