Health Science Midterm #2

  1. What is non-communicable disease?
    disease/illness cannot be transmitted from an infected person to another
  2. What are some contributing factors to non-communicable disease? (3)
    • genetic
    • environmental
    • behavioural in nature
  3. What are some examples of non-communicable disease? (5)
    • Alzheimer's
    • chronic arthritis
    • cancer
    • depression
    • heat attack
  4. Nearly ___ of NCD deaths occur in low and middle income countries.
  5. What are the top 3 leading cause of death since 2000?
    • heart disease
    • cancer
    • stroke
  6. What was the leading cause of death between 1850 and 1900? (2)
    • Tuberculosis
    • Diarrhea
  7. What are the 4 behavioural risk factors of NCD?
    • -smoking
    • -inactivity
    • -poor diet
    • -alcohol use
  8. What are some examples of background risk factors? (4)
    • age
    • sex
    • level of education
    • genetic composition
  9. What re some examples of intermediate risk factors? (3)
    • elevated blood lipids
    • high blood pressure
    • overweight/obesity
  10. What are some community risk factors and give some examples for each? (4)
    • social and economic condition: poverty, employment and family composition
    • Environment: climate or air pollution
    • Culture: practices, norms and values
    • Urbanization: housing, access to products and services
  11. There are approximately __________ smokers in the world, consuming __________ cigarettes annually.
    • 1 billion
    • 6 trillion
  12. __________ people die from tobacco use each year (direct and second hand smoke)
    6 million
  13. Second hand smoke increases the risk of? (4)
    • cardiovascular disease
    • lung cancer
    • sudden infant death
    • low birth weight babies
  14. Smoking is estimated to cause about __ of lung cancer.
  15. Approximately _________ people die each year due to physical inactivity.
    3.2 billion
  16. Regular physical activity reduce the risk of? (4)
    • high blood pressure
    • diabetes
    • breast and colon cancer
    • depression
  17. Approximately ____________ dies each year from the harmful use of alcohol.
    2.5 million
  18. Alcohol is the world's __ largest risk factor for disease burden.
  19. How many minutes of physical activities are recommended for Canadian adults?
    150 minutes per week
  20. Worldwide, ________ people die each year as a result of being overweight.
    2.8 million
  21. Obesity has __________ since 1980.
  22. Obesity is a risk factor for? (4)
    • coronary heart disease
    • stroke
    • type 2 diabetes
    • some cancers
  23. What are the three health strategies for NCD?
    • primary prevention
    • secondary prevention
    • tertiary prevention
  24. What is the goal with primary prevention?
    the goal is to protect healthy people from developing a disease or experiencing an injury in the first place
  25. what are some examples of primary prevention? (5)
    • education about good nutrition, regular exercise, dangers of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs
    • proper seatbelt and helmet use
    • regular exams and screening tests to monitor risk factors for illness
    • immunization
    • controlling potential hazards at home and in the workplace
  26. When does secondary prevention happen?
    after an illness or serious risk factors have already been diagnosed.
  27. What is the goal for secondary prevention?
    The goal is to halt or slow the progress of disease (if possible) in its earliest stages
  28. What are the goals in tertiary prevention? (4)
    • slow disease progress
    • maintain function
    • lengthen life
    • improve quality of life
  29. What are some methods used tertiary prevention? (3)
    • risk factor modification (weight loss)
    • reducing harmful exposure
    • rehabilitation
  30. What is screening? (2)
    • detects potential disease indicators
    • indicates suspicion
  31. What is diagnostic testing?
    • detects the presence of a disease
    • results in definitive diagnosis
  32. Does early detection mean better outcome?
    not always!
  33. Define True positive.
    The patient has the disease and the test is positive
  34. Ideally, primary prevention will reduce the ______ and _______ of disease
    incidence and prevalence
  35. What are some examples of when screening is used? (5)
    • breast cancer
    • colon cancer
    • cervical cancer
    • vision and hearing impairment
  36. What is screening the first step to?
    first step to diagnosis
  37. Define false positive.
    the patient does not have the disease but the test is positive.
  38. Define True negative.
    the patient does not have the disease and the is negative
  39. Define False negative.
    the patient has the disease but the test is negative
  40. What is sensitivity?
    probability that a test correctly classifies people with the disease as having the disease
  41. What is specificity?
    the probability that a test correctly classifies people without the disease as not having the disease.
  42. What is positive predicted value?
    the probability that someone who tests positive actually has the disease.
  43. What is negative predicted value?
    the probability that someone who tests negative actually does not have the disease
  44. In a 95% confidence interval, what can you conclude when 1 is included?
    if it includes one, there's not 95% confidence interval
Card Set
Health Science Midterm #2
non-communicable disease and screening