Psyc 2000

  1. Sensation
    • how
    • our
    • sensory receptors and nervous system receives and represents stimulus energies
    • from our environment
  2. Transduction
    • conversion
    • of one sort of energy to another
  3. Perception
    • how
    • we
    • organize and interpret sensory information
  4. Two
    types of processing
    • Bottom up processing
    • Top down processing
  5. Bottom up processing
    • beginning
    • with
    • basic information from our sense receptors
  6. Top down processing
    • guided
    • by a
    • higher-level framework of experience and expectations
  7. Psychophysics

    • The
    • study of how physical energy in the environment relates to our psychological
    • experience of perception
  8. Absolute threshold
    • minimum
    • stimulation
    • to detect a stimulus 50% of the time
  9. Subliminal
    • stimulation
    • below
    • absolute threshold
  10. Can
    we be affected by subliminal stimulation?
    • Yes
    • Sometimes we consciously
    • detect it.
    • —
  11. Priming
    • effects
    • of a stimulus that is not consciously recognized—a subtle, fleeting effect.
  12. Difference threshold (or just noticeable difference)
    • the
    • minimum
    • difference a person can detect between any two stimuli 50% of the time
  13. Weber's Law states
    that the just noticiable differnce between two stimuli is a constant minimum proportion of the stimulus
  14. example of Weber's law in action
    if a differnce of ten percent in weight is noticeable, Weber's law predics that a person could discrimunate 10- and 11- pound weights or 50- and 55-pound weights
  15. Sensory Adaptation
    • Diminished

    • sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. This allows focus on novel information.
  16. if our bodies adapt to things after sensing it for so long why don’t
    objects vanish from our sight?

    Because our eyes are actually constantly moving.
  17. Selective Attention
    —is the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus out of all of those that we are capable of experiencing
  18. examples of the use of selective attention in everyday life
    • —Cocktail party effect
    • —Cell-phone use while
    • driving
  19. Wavelength
    distance between wave peaks
  20. Wavelenght determines...
    hue (color
  21. Intensity
    waves’ height
  22. Intensity determines
    —Determines brightness
  23. True or False
    Short Wavelenghts equal low frequency and give you dark color
    • False
    • Image Upload 2
  24. True Or False
    Small amptitude equals bright colors
    • False
    • Image Upload 4
  25. Diagram the eye
    Image Upload 6
    Image Upload 8
  26. Parts of the eye
    Detect Color
  27. Parts of the eye
    —detect black, white, and grey
  28. Blind spot
    point where optic nerve leave the eye (no receptor cells)
  29. Accommodation
    The process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to help focus near or far objects on the retina.
  30. Feature Detection
    Nerve cells in the visual cortex respond to specific features, such as edges, angles, and movement.
  31. —Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic theory
    —Cones recognize red, green, and blue

    —Perception of other colors is based on different combinations
  32. Soundwaves
    = frequency; Determines...
  33. Soundwaves
    Height = amplitude; Determines
  34. —Sound waves travelfrom the outer ear, to the middle ear , to the ___ wich is a ___
    cochlea (fluid filled snail-shaped tube).
  35. —Movement in the cochlea fluid disrupts receptor cells (hair cells)
    on the ____ membrane, which triggers nerve impulses that travel to the brain.
  36. How do we perceive pitch?
    Place Theory
    • —waves of different pitches trigger activity at different places on the basilar membrane
    • —Explains how we hear high-pitched sounds
  37. How do we perceive pitch?

    Frequency Theory
    —neural impulses are triggered at the same rate as the wave’s frequency

    —Explains how we hear lower-pitched sounds
  38. Kinesthesis
    • —Sense of body parts’position and movement, based on information from receptor cells in the muscles,
    • tendons, and joints.
  39. —This sense is assisted by _____, based on movement of fluid in the inner ear’s semicircular canals.
    vestibular sense
  40. —We organize sensations into a “____,” or whole.
    —Greater than the sum of its parts
  41. —Our experiences, assumptions, and expectations may give us a ____, a mental predisposition that influences what we see.
    perceptual set
  42. Gestalt Principles
    • —Figure-groundorganization
    • —Grouping rules:
    • — Proximity
    • — Similarity
    • —Connectedness
    • —Continuity
    • —Closure
  43. Monocular cues


    —Relative clarity

    —Texture gradient

    —Relative height

    • —Relative motion
    • (motion parallax)

    —Linear perspective

    —Light and shadow

    • —Assume light comes
    • from above

Card Set
Psyc 2000
Psyc 2000 summer course