Music 2000

  1. Minstrel shows

    • developed before the civil war, placed white performers in
    • black makeup, where they mimicked, ridiculed, and made fun of the music, dance,
    • and culture of the slave population.
    • Often the writer of the music had little knowledge of southern black
    • music. Most composers were from the
    • northeast (Stephen Foster ex.)
  2. Congo square
    a place where slaves were permitted to dance. Now called Louis Armstrong Park. Ring shout – a cluster of individuals movingin a circular pattern. Comes from an African ritual ceremony. New Orleans City Council designated Congo Square as the official site for slave dances. Other parts of the country did not permit this and outlawed African elements in the music of slaves. The Latin-Catholic influence on society was more tolerant.
  3. Ragtime
    • usually thought of as piano genre. It has an even division of the beat, and
    • comes from the military march form AABBACCDD.
  4. Blues
    • a form of music, also a feeling
    • AABA – form of many standard tunes, 32 bars long, 4 sections
    • of 8 bars each, includes bridge
  5. Race records
    • a term applied between 1921 and 1942 to phonograph recordings made especially for African Americans. Term was coined by Ralph Peer of Okeh, the first company to have a race series.
    • Pretty valuable today
  6. Robert Johnson who was he and what was he famous for?
    Hell Hound on My Trail (1937) nasal vocal quality. Used unmeasured

    • phrases.
    • Interesting story about his death. At the age of 27, he was served
    • poison moonshine during a performance at a Delta store. No doctor attended to him, and he died of
    • strychnine poisoning. The owner of the plantation where he died listed syphilis as the cause of death.
  7. Jelly Roll Morton and his Red Hot Peppers
    • Black Bottom Stomp - Jelly Roll Morton was a pianist, composer, and
    • bandleader from N.O. He was the first important jazz composer, which meant he
    • “wrote it down”. He bridged the gap
    • between ragtime piano style and jazz piano style. He was a black Creole, but was scornful
    • toward blacks. Later claimed to be the
    • “inventor of Jazz”. His first work was
    • in bordellos of N.O. His most famous group
    • – Red Hot Peppers
  8. Sidney Bechet
    • Blue Horizon 12
    • bar blues, repeated phrases, slow tempo, tension and release. Bechet’s unique sound includes 1) vibrato and
    • 2) “open throated” aspect
  9. Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong
    • First of the BIG 6
    • Struttin’ with some Barbecue, Weather Bird -
    • extroverted player, used marijuana and referred to it as “an insulator against
    • the pain of racism”, FBI file due to Little Rock 9, His managers were
    • affiliated with the Mob
  10. Bix Beiderbecke
    • Singin’ the Blues - roots, musical style, first important white jazz
    • musician, died early, composition for piano, introspective, wanted to be
    • remembered as a composer
  11. How Bix is different from Louis
    • Bix played coronet, Louis played trumpet
    • Bix played wider intervals
    • Bix was introspective, Louis was extroverted
  12. Swing

    • Basic stylistic concepts, development of
    • arranging, dance music, 3 main proponents, main instrumentation
  13. Duke Ellington
    • 2nd in the BIG 6
    • roots, compositional style, important soloists in the band,
    • musical examples, played at the Cotton Club in Harlem, jungle sounds, voiced
    • across sections of the band, multiple versions of pieces, Proportion in music,
    • Fibonacci series, golden section, .618
  14. Count Basie
    • Kansas City swing style, Brass vs. reeds, first great rhythm

    • section, riff based compositions, disappearance of stride, Lester Young
    • influence
  15. Benny Goodman
    • first racially integrated band, players in his
    • quartet, tour & clear channel stations, drum set soloist
  16. Charlie Christian
    • used an amplified guitar - long solo lines,
    • amplification
  17. Django Reinhardt
    • Belgian gypsy guitarist - only used two fingers
    • (lost two fingers in a fire), addition of the violin, first outstanding
    • European jazz musician
  18. Slam Stewart style was?
    solo style
  19. tenor sax - first soloist to start using tritone
    Coleman Hawkins
  20. ____ uses piano - reharmonization (keeping the original melody –
    substituting different chords)

    Art Tatum
  21. type of music which consit of: basic stylistic characteristics, melodic
    chromaticism, fast tempos, cabaret cards, move from entertainer to artist,
    artifacts for copyright reasons
  22. Charlie Parker
    • 3rd in the BIG 6
    • nick name was Yard Bird
    • Highly addictive chratristics, was addicted to any and everything , died early age 35 , had many alternate takes, had a club named after him in New York Birdland
  23. Dizzy Gillespie
    • Gillespie pouches, Chano Pozo, worked with Bird, Afro-Cuban

    • (more intense, more rhythmic, bass notes are seldom on the beat, salsa, mambo,
    • meringue) influence
  24. Thelonius Monk
    • composer - Straight, No Chaser, rhythmic development,

    • able to sound as if he “bends” notes, an unorthodox composer
  25. West
    • refers to modern jazz that is softer and easier
    • to follow than bop. Musicians didn’t
    • like the term “Cool” which was used mostly be record companies and critics
  26. Dave Brubeck
    • Blue Rondo a la Turk – pianist - mixed meters, west coast school,
    • cerebral, crossrhythm, supermetric, admired as a composer, not as a pianist
  27. MJQ, Modern Jazz Quartet
    • instrumentation, classical influence, quiet dignified

    • elegance, always wore tuxedos
    • John Lewis
    • – Piano
    • Milt Jackson
    • – Vibraphone
    • Connie Kay
    • – Drums
    • Percy Heath
    • - Bass
  28. Chet Baker
    • solo style, contrapuntal, lyrical, playing
    • horizontally,
  29. Miles Davis
    • Boplicity, Summertime - Birth of the Cool,

    • instrumentation, arranger was Gil Evans, Harmon mute close to the microphone,
    • used a nine piece band (nonet)
Card Set
Music 2000
Music 2000 summer class flash cards