Respiratory and GI Pathology

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  1. What is the major role of the respiratory system?
    The oxygenation of blood and the removal of the body's waste products in the form of carbon dioxide
  2. What are the two congenital/hereditary diseases?
    • cystic fibrosis
    • Hyaline membrane disease
  3. _________ is a hereditary disease characterized by the secretion of excessively viscous mucus. Most commonly found in children
    Cystic fibrosis
  4. __________ demonstrates as thickening of bronchioles and mucus filled alveoli.
    Cystic fibrosis
  5. _____________ One of the most common causes of respiratory stress in a new born. Due to shortage of surfactant that helps lungs maintain surface tension
    Hylaline membrane disease.
  6. Appears as a fine granular appearance of the pulmonary parenchyma
    Hyaline membrane disease
  7. An inflammation of the lung that can be caused by various organisms, most commonly bacteria and viruses.
  8. Appears as small patches of consolidation may be seen as pacification's that are scattered throughout the lungs. This is little to no involvement of the airways
  9. Most commonly produced by viral and mycoplasmal infections. The inflammatory process involves predominantly the walls and lining of the alveoli and the supporting structures of the lung
    Interstitial (viral) pneumonia
  10. What was an early treatment of TB?
    Plombage- collapsing of a lung to let it rest. Caused a variety of complications
  11. Caused by a rod shaped bacterium with a protective waxy coat. Spreads mainly by droplets in the air
  12. Granular appearance. See enlarged lymph nodes. Pleural effusion is a response.
  13. _____________ includes several conditions in which obstruction of the airways leads to an ineffective exchange of respiratory gases and makes breathing difficult
  14. _____________ is characterized by excessive tracheobronchial mucus production leading to the obstruction of small airways
    Chronic bronchitis
  15. ___________ refers to the distention of distal air spaces as a result of the destruction of alveolar walls and the obstruction of small airways.
  16. The most common radiographic abnormality in ____________ is a generalized increase in bronchovascular markings (dirty chest) especially in the lower lungs
    Chronic bronchitis
  17. The major radiographic signs of _______ are related to overinflation, alterations in the pulmonary vasculature, and bullae formation. Diaphragm tends to be barrel chested
  18. ____________ is a result of prolonged occupational exposure to certain irritating particulars and can cause severe pulmonary disease. Leads to chronic inflammation which leads to fibrous changes (scar tissue) and dysplasia. Can lead to cancers
  19. _________ may develop in improperly protected workers engaged in manufacturing asbestos products,
  20. The radiographic sign of __________ involves the pleura. Pleural thickening appear as linear plaques of opacification which are often along the lower chest wall and diaphragm.
  21. Accumulation of fluid in pleural space which begins to collapse the lung describes
    pleural effusion
  22. To see air fluid levels in suspected pleural effusion you would do a decub looking at the side _______
  23. The earliest radiographic finding of __________ visualizes blunting of the costrophrenic angles
    Pleural effusion
  24. What is the best imaging for sinusitis?
  25. ____________ refers to a condition in which there is diminished are within the lung associated with reduced lung volume. Most commonly results from bronchial obstructions
  26. What is an important iatrogenic cause of atelectasis?
    Improper placement of an endotracheal tube below the level of the tracheal bifurcation. Tends to enter the right bronchus and block the left causing partial or complete collapse of left lung.
  27. How can you determine if lung cancer is primary or metastatic?
  28. ____________ lung cancer begins in lung (solitary nodule or multiple)
  29. The duodenum has what kind of folds?
    Rigid and transerve
  30. The jejunum has has a ________ appearance
  31. What does the large bowel do?
    Removes water and collects and concentrates waste
  32. ___________ produces insulin in the Ilsets if Langerhaans. The body needs insulin to utilize glucose
    The pancreas
  33. What is a common indication for an upper GI and cannot be seen on a static x-ray
  34. GERD is best visualized using _____________. They consist of superficial ulcerations or erosions that appear as streaks or dots of barium.
    Double contrast studies.
  35. ____________ describes any symptomatic condition or structural changes caused by reflux of the stomach contents into the esophagus.
    Gastrointestinal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  36. _______________ is a condition related to severe reflux esophagitis in which the normal squamous lining of the lower esophagus is destroyed and replaced by columnar epithelium similar to that of the stomach.
    Barrett's esophagus
  37. Barrett's esophagus is commonly associated with
    hiatal hernia
  38. Fibrous healing in Barrett's esophagus often leads to
    a smooth tapered stricture
  39. ___________ tends to be highly invasive; growing into surrounding tissues and is diagnosed very late
    Esophageal cancer
  40. A double contrast barium swallow shows a plaque like lesion, occasionally with central ulceration, that involves one wall of the esophagus describes
    esophageal cancer
  41. ____________ are dilated veins in the wall of the esophagus that are most commonly the result of increased pressure in the portal venous system
    Esophageal varices
  42. _____________ appears as a wavy border, thickening of folds, which appear as round or filling defects resembling the beads of a rosary
    Esophageal varices
  43. What is the most common abnormality detected on upper GI exams?
    Hiatal hernia
  44. When the stomach has push through the diaphragm and into the chest cavity this is known as
    hiatal hernia
  45. ___________may be visualized on static chest x-ray but diagnosis must be confirmed with a barium study
    A hiatal hernia
  46. Inflammation of the stomach is termed
  47. _____________ is a group of inflammatory processes involving the stomach and occurs most frequently on the lesser curvature.
    Peptic ulcer disease
  48. What are the major complications of peptic ulcer disease?
    Hemorrhage, gastric outlet obstruction and perforation. If chronic can lead to cancer
  49. An upper GI that displays a wagon wheel appearance is showing a
    peptic ulcer
  50. Stomach cancer presents radiographically as a
    filling defect or disruption of gastric folds if caught early on.
Card Set
Respiratory and GI Pathology
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