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  1. Appropriations committees help determine the programs that will be funded, while authorizations committees determine the amount of monies to be distributed
  2. The Framers made Congress a bicameral body because they were concerned that too strong a legislative branch would lead to tyranny
  3. Legislators typically eschew casework, as it is burdensome to the staff and emphasizes benefits for individuals over the good of the whole district
  4. A bill goes through markup in a full committee after a subcommittee votes in favor of it
  5. Studies show that legislators vote in conformity with the prevailing opinion of their district constituents about two-thirds of the time
  6. The House currently has 435 members, but this number increases every ten years with the taking of the census, as mandated by the Constitution
  7. The CBO was created in 1974 to evaluate the economic effects of different spending programs, and to provide information on the cost of proposed policies. Refer to Table 6.7, What are the Congressional Support Agencies?
  8. Especially since the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Congress has ceded to the president a major role in the legislative process.
  9. Logrolling, or vote trading, was deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court following the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  10. A conference committee is comprised of members from the House and Senate committees that originally considered the bill.
  11. In the face of inaction by House membership, a discharge petition signed by a majority can force a bill out of a committee and to the floor.
  12. The vast majority of bills receive a subcommittee hearing, but not full passage.
  13. The increasing partisanship and unproductivity of Congress have contributed to lower approval ratings of congressional members in recent years.
  14. Although the Constitution allows states to create their own legislative boundaries, gerrymandering in favor of any partisan or racial group is expressly forbidden by law.
  15. The necessary and proper clause allows Congress to increase the scope of its authority.
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