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  1. Primary brain injuries
    direct injuries, lacerations, crushing of the neurons, glial cells, and BV of the brain.
  2. Secondary brain injuries
    result from additional effects of cerebral, edema, hemorrhage, hematoma, cerebral vasospasm, infection, and ischemia R/T systemic factors.
  3. Concussion (MTBI)
    reversible interference with brain function, usually resulting from a mild blow to the head.
  4. Contusion
    bruising of brain tissue with rupture of small BV and edema that usually results from a blunt blow to the head
  5. Closed head injury
    occurs when the skull is not fractured in the injury, but the brain tissue is injured and BV may be ruptured by the force exerted against the skull.
  6. Open head injury
    those involving fractures or penetration of the brain by missiles or sharp objects.
  7. Linear fracture
    simple cracks in the bone.
  8. Comminuted fracture
    several fracture lines but may not be complicated.
  9. Compound fracture
    involve trauma in which the brain issue is exposed to the environment and is likely to be severely damaged because bone fragments may penetrate the tissue and the risk of infection is high.
  10. Contrecoup injury
    an area of the brain contralateral to the site of direct damage is injured as the brain bounces off the skull.
  11. Primary brain injuries
    lacerations, crushing of the neurons, glial cells, and BV of the brain
  12. Secondary injuries
    additional effects of cerebral edema, hemorrhage, hematoma, cerebral vasospasm, infection, ischemia
  13. Hematoma
    collection of blood in the tissue that develops from ruptured BV, either immediately after injury or after some delay
  14. Epidural hematoma
    results from bleeding between the dura and the skull, usually caused by tearing of the middle meningeal artery in temporal region
  15. Subdural hematoma
    between dura and arachnoid, frequently a small tear in a vein causing blood to accumulate slowly. acute or subacute (24 hrs to about a week)
  16. Subarachnoid hemorrhage
    in space between the arachnoid and pia, associated w/traumatic bleeding from the BV at the base of the brain
  17. Intracerebral hematoma
    results from contusions or shearing injuries, may develop several days after
  18. Etiology of brain injury
    sports injuries, motorcycle and car accidents, falls, contact sports, shaking infants
  19. Signs/symptoms of brain injury
    seizures, CN impairment, otorrhea, rhinorrhea, otorrhagia, fever, stress ulcers
  20. Treatments for brain injury
    CT, MRI, surgery, blood products, O2, head assessments at home after discharge
  21. Autonomic dysreflexia
    injury of the cervical spine, stimulation of the sympathetic system triggering a massive sympathetic reflex response that cannot be controlled from the brain
  22. Kernicterus
    accumulated bilirubin crosses the BBB and causes damage to the neurons
  23. Spastic paralysis (CP)
    results from damage to the pyramidal tracts (diplegia) or the motor cortex (hemiparesis) or from general cortical damage (quadriparesis).
  24. Diplegia
    • Paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body.
  25. Hemiparesis
    Slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body.
  26. Quadriparesis
    Weakness of both arms and both legs
  27. Dyskinetic disease
    results from damage to the extrapyramidal tract, basal nuclei, or cranial nerves.
  28. Athetoid/Choreiform involuntary movements
    seen in dyskinetic disease (CP), characterized by rapid, jerking movements
  29. Ataxic CP
    develops from damage to the cerebellum and manifests as loss of balance and coordination.
Card Set
Acute/Chronic Neurologic Disorders
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