Psych Midterm

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  1. hindsight bias
    saying you knew what was gonna happen after it happens
  2. overconfidence error
    being too certain in one's judgements
  3. coincidence error
    perceiving order in random events
  4. theory
    an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
  5. hypothesis
    a testable theory
  6. case studies
    observing one person in-depth
  7. naturalistic observation
    gathering data but not intervening
  8. surveys/interviews
    having other people report their own attitudes/behavior
  9. random sampling
    a sample in which every person in the group has an equal chance of being included
  10. correlation
    a measure of how closely two factors vary together (scatter plots reveal correlation)
  11. incorrectly interpreting a correlation between two factors as evidence of causation is best avoided by making use of
  12. experimentation
    manipulating one factor in a situation to determine it's effect
  13. independent variable
    manipulated independently
  14. dependent variable
    variable expected to change by manipulating independent variable
  15. control group
    does not get disturbed (no variable changed)
  16. experimental group
    is disturbed (variable manipulated)
  17. measures of central tendency
    mode, median, mean
  18. a correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the
    extent to which two factors vary together
  19. control condition
    a statement describing how a researcher manipulates an independent variable
  20. as members of the human family, we all share a common
    biological heritage
  21. behavior genetics
    the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
  22. environment
    every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
  23. genes
    the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes
  24. genome
    the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
  25. identical/fraternal twins
    • identical: same egg/sperm
    • fraternal: 2 eggs, 2 sperm
  26. temperament
    a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
  27. molecular genetics
    the subbfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
  28. heritability
    the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
  29. evolutionary psychology
    the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
  30. gender
    the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female
  31. culture
    the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
  32. individualism
    giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
  33. collectivism
    giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family) and defining one's identity accordingly
  34. gender role
    a set of expected behavior for males or females
  35. social learning theory
    the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
  36. psychodynamic theory
    view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences
  37. psychoanalysis
    Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
  38. ID
    operates on pleasure principle and aims to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives
  39. ego
    operates on the reality principle and mediates among the ID, superego, and reality
  40. superego
    represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement
  41. Oedipus complex
    a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
  42. defense mechanisms
    • regression: reverting to a safer time in life
    • introjection: taking on the values of others
    • denial: closing one's eyes to the existence of a threatening aspect of reality
    • sublimation: diverting sexual or aggressive energy into other channels
    • displacement: shifting impulses to another that seems less threatening
    • reaction formation: actively expressing the opposite behavior possibly to remove focus from self
    • projection: attributing unacceptable traits to others, but not to self
    • rationalization: justification of certain behaviors
    • repression: threatening or painful thoughts and feelings that a persons unconsciously excludes from reality
  43. humanistic theory
    view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth
  44. self-actualization
    according to Maslow, the ultimate need that arises after basic needs are met
  45. Big Five
    conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness. extraversion
  46. social-cognitive perspective
    views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits and their social context
  47. psychological disorder
    deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
  48. multiaxial diagnosis
    • axis 1: which disorder present
    • axis 2: personality disorder/mental retardation
    • axis 3: medical condition
    • axis 4: psychosocial or environmental problems
    • axis 5: what is the Global Assessment Factor of this person's functioning (1-100)
  49. anxiety disorders
    characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

    • general anxiety: always tense
    • panic disorder: panic attacks
    • phobia: irrational fear
    • OCD: repeated thoughts/actions
    • PTSD: reliving scary moments
  50. mood disorders
    characterized by emotional extremes

    • depressive disorder: being sad
    • bipolar disorder: manic/depressive
    • mania: hyperactivity and optimism
  51. schizophrenia
    a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, emotions, and behaviors
  52. dissociative disorders
    disorder in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

    DID: dissociative identity disorder
  53. personality disorders
    characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

    antisocial personality: a person with no conscience or sense of wrongdoing, even towards friends and family members
Card Set
Psych Midterm
Psych midterm
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