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  1. Prison matron
    • 1820s(forerunner to women in policing)
    • quaker women who were concerned about women in prison(because off sexual abuse)
    • believed women should guard women
  2. police matrons
    • women should be present in police stations
    • 1845 NYC hired 1st police matron (male officers resisted)
  3. Marie Owens
    • hired in chicago(1893) 
    • patrolman for 30yrs
    • investigated child abuse, runaways & sexual abuse
  4. Lola Baldwin
    • portland (1905)
    • hired as a safety worker
  5. Alice Wells
    • LA (1910)
    • appointed power of arrest
    • educated w/ degree similar to social work
  6. women on patrol
    • (1972) Indianapolis
    • 1st city to put women on patrol
    • (1973) LA placed a car of women on patrol others included D.C. & NYC
  7. honeymoon stage
    • 1 stage of law enforcement for women
    • everything seems to be going well
  8. ambivalent stage
    • 2 stage of law enforcement for women
    • doubt because
    • male domination, male culture
  9. defeminization
    • attempt to lose femininity in order to fit in
    • ie appear more masculine
  10. transition time
    • 3rd stage of law enforcement for women
    • transition into police culture
  11. Christopher comission
  12. Duel of manhood
    occurs when there a male officer confronting a male citizen
  13. sexual harrassment
    • occurs when a female officer is dealing with a male citizen or even male officer
    • the EEOC defines it as
    • 1) unwanted advances 2) can be verbal or physical 3) of a sexual nature 4) submission to or rejection of impacts employment
  14. Rodney King
    • well known police brutality case
    • where police beat king brutually after a police chase because he was speeding
    • resulted in  huge riots (LA RIOTS)
  15. police field tactics
  16. delay in calls for service
    • minority complaint about police 
    • police taking a long time to respond to calls(if at all)
  17. verbal abuse
    • complaint about police treatment towards minority
    • usually racialized
  18. excessive stopping
    • over policing
    • focus on minorities as a suspects
    • questioning and frisking
  19. terry v ohio
    • (1968) NYPD stop, question, and frisk (Brownsville Brooklyn)
    • issue came when substituting race for probable cause
  20. driving while black/ brown
    racial profiling of black/minority drivers
  21. pretextual stops
    • use traffic violations just to get a closer look at drivers
    • legal
  22. Whren v U.S. (1996)
    • case where an officer was investigated drug crimes
    •  whren was stopped for "not signaling" and the officer saw 2 bags of cocaine
    • council wanted to dismmiss drug evidence because officer used traffic violation to pull him over and get closer look
    • supreme court ruled that pretextual stops are LEGAL
  23. Abner Louima
    • extreme case of police brutality
    • 1997, NYPD police pushed plunger into rectum and punctured his intestine
    • ambulance was called but police demanded that they wait
  24. choke hold
    • technique used in policing
    • LAPD had some issues btwn 1975-1982 15 deaths occured
    • 12 were black men
  25. Amadou Diallo
    • NYPD were looking for a rape suspect
    • Diallo was an immigrant and wanted to pull out his wallet for id purposes
    • police mistook it for a gun and fell
    • officers let off 41 shots
  26. Fleeing Felon rule
    • when a violent suspect is running shooting the suspect is considered "seizure"
    • not illegal
  27. Tenessee v Garner (1974)
    • young 15 yr old runs out house that police thought was a breaking and entering case
    • police shot and killed him
    • since he was non-violent it was a violation of 4th ammen.
  28. Police Community Relations Program
    • problem soling within community by talking community and creating trust
    • creates a 2 way flow of info
    • ie neighborhood watch, mcgriff the crime dog, DARE
  29. public relations
    • "looking good" and selling the department
    • one way flow of info
    • ie. holding chairty bball game
  30. community relations
    • get info from community
    • public can share feeling with the police
  31. community policing
    • police philosophy/approach
    • blends research and practice
  32. Herman Goldstein
    • 1979
    • problem oriented policing
    • break it down into smaller issues 
    • solving problem is not always about arrest
  33. Broken windows
    • article that basically:
    • get involved at first sign of trouble because it is a signal of disorder
  34. Wilson and Kelling
    (1982) published broken windows in Alantic monthly
  35. Newport News, Va
    • example of zero tolerence policing
    • (1984) problem w/ burglary in 1 apt complex
    • sent 12 officer task forec to "survey residents
  36. issues in community policing
    • no one standard definition
    • can police be comm. advocates?
    • Organizers? Can all officers do this
    • removing officers from traditional patrol($$)
    • accountability:who is held "liable"
    • Middle class bias
    • community failing/struggling
  37. ways police discover crime
    • patrol 10%
    • citizen calls 90%
  38. preventive patrol
    • greatest coverage-appear to always be around
    • should deter crime
  39. kansas City preventive patrol experiment (1974)
    • 15 beats divided into 3 groups
    • traditional patrol(control)
    • proactive patrol(stayed constantly visible)
    • reactive patrol (only responed when called)

    • saw no diff in crime rate between poroactive and reactive
    • no diff in reports, no diff in response time, no diff in effectiveness(opinion)
    • proactive did however increase fear of crime
  40. single officer patrol
    • vs 2 officer patrol 
    • more cost effective/greater coverage
    • fewer resisting arrest situations
    • fewer assaults against officer
    • fewer injuries
    • fewer complaints
  41. hot spot patrol
    • policing by location
    • Minneapolis hot spot experiment showed that patroling by location for 3 hours a day reduced crime 20%
    • greatest crime reduction is being seen for no more than 10 mins.
  42. Undercover Police work
    • lengthy history in local law enforcement
    • NYPD street crime unit transit police
    • less supervision
    • need good policy to guide undercover officers
  43. Suicide by cops
    an act motivated in or whole or in part by the offender's desire to commit suicide that results in justifiable homicide by a law enforcement
  44. Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act of 2004
    exempts qualified police officers from state laws prohibiting the carrying of concealed weapons and allows retired officers having at least 15 years of service to carry fire arm.
  45. Bertillon System
    the first attempt at criminal identification that was thought to be reliable and accurate, was based on the theory that human beings differ from each other in the exact measurements of there bodies and that sum of these measurements yields a characteristics formula for each individual.
  46. The West case
    Will west arrived at the federal penitentiary and they said that his photograph was already on file and his bertillon measurement. But that had them confused with another person who was already in prison. This incident furthered the use of fingerprints in America.
  47. CODIS - Combined DNA Index System
    CODIS contains DNA profiles obtained from subjects convicted of homicide, sexual assault, and other serious felonies.
  48. Stalking
    defined as conduct that would cause reasonable person on at least two separate occasions to feel fear remains pervasive problem in our society.
  49. Cold cases
    Jurisdictions plagued by significant number of unsolved murders or cold cases.
  50. SARA-Scanning,analysis,response, assessment
    four stage problem-solving process
  51. POP- Problem-oriented policing
    is a strategy that puts the COP philosophy into practice because it advocates that police examine the underlying causes of recurring incidents of crimes and disorder.
  52. Problem analysis triangle
    • helps officers visualize the problem and understand the relationship between the three elements of the triangle.
    • Offender
    • Victim 
    • Place
  53. COP - Community -Oriented policing
    The police must be engaged in the fight against crime and disorder.
  54. CPTED- Crime prevention through environmental design
    The proper design and effective use of the environment that can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime, and an improvement in the quality of life.
  55. Street Crime Unit
    Ethics: very difficult  to infitrate Billy Queen
  56. Domestic Violence
    • Women 87 percent
    • men 15 percent 
    • Race reporting, calling- minority women
    • Victimization younger women 20-34
    • As education goes up victimization goes down same with income
  57. Preliminary Investogation
    A preliminary investigation is an inquiry conducted by law enforcement representatives to gather more information about an allegation. The purpose of the inquiry is twofold: it is designed to determine whether or not a crime was committed and to identify a suspect or confirm a suspect's identity.
  58. Follow-up Investagation
    The follow up after the preliminary investigation. To see if there is new evidence
  59. Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment
  60. Harrison Act
    Must have license and be a tax payer to have some drugs. This creates a black market for drugs mainly opium
  61. Heroin
    Heavy in the black community.
  62. Marijuana
    marijuana tax act- this is federal law. prohibits  the use of the drug. Drug was said the turn person into something that they could not control.
  63. Tobacco Deaths
    • 400 K in U.S
    • 3 million deaths world wide
  64. alcohol deaths
    60-100,000 per year in the U.S.
  65. Illicit Drug Deaths
    • These are all the illegal drugs combined. 
    • 20,000 per year
  66. Drugs and violence
    • Systemic violence (illegal system in place)- This is violence that comes from the drug market.The reason it is violence:
    • territory
    • debt
    • corruption
    • This refers to the Columbia drug trafficking.
  67. Black peso Market
    converting US dollars to paso using the Columbia trafficking system. Making a lot of money US dollars are sold for less to get peso.
Card Set
soc of law enforcement exam 2
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