1. A (n) ___________ deals with potentially verifiable phenomena, and is highly ordered and structured.
    scientific theory
  2. A(n) __________is a partially verified statement of a scientific relationship that can not be directly observed.
  3. A(n) __________ is a theory that has been substantially verified.
  4. A specific implementation of a more general theoretical view is termed a(n) _____________.
  5. A(n)__________ is a set of program statements that define the variables to be considered and the ways in which their values will change over the course of time or trials.
    computer model
  6. A(n)__________ describes how a behavioral system works.
    mechanistic explanation
  7. An explanation that specifies what a system or attribute does in a(n) ___________explanation.
    mchanistic functional
  8. A theory that explains behavior in mathematical terms is a(n)_______ theory.
    quantitative theory
  9. Any theory that is not quantitative is _______
  10. A(n) _______theory merely describes relationships.
    descriptive theory
  11. A(n) ______theory explains a relationship by borrowing from well-understood models.
    analogical theory
  12. A fundamental theory attempt to explain relationships with ________.
    a new structure
  13. The range of situations to which a theory may be legitimately applied is its_________.
  14. At the highest level, theories represent a way to_______ the phenomena that they deal with.
  15. One role of theory in science is to provide a framework to______and______research results.
    integrate or organize
  16. A theory that is capable of falling an empirical test is said to be_________.
  17. A theory is________if it accounts for a phenomenon with few assumptions.
  18. When you test a theory by looking for evidence that supports it, you are using a(n)_______strategy.
  19. Platt (1964) referred to a process of proposing alternative theories, eliminating one or more of them through experiments tests and continuing until one theory remained. He termed this process__________.
    strong inference
  20. Research that is organized around testing the specific implications of a theory is said to be_______-driven.
  21. When you test a theory by looking for evidence that contradicts it, you are using a(n) ________strategy.
  22. According to your text, a scientific theory has which of the following characteristics?
    A)It deals with potentially verifiable phenomena.
    B)It is structured.
    C)It is highly ordered.
    D)All of the above
    E)Both a and b
    D. all of the above
  23. A partially verified statement of a scientific relationship that cannot be directly observed is the definition offered in your text for a:
  24. The relationship described by a theory must be:
    A)inferred from data.
    B)deduced from a law.
    C)directly observed.
    D)revealed by divine inspiration.
    A. inferred from data
  25. Theories are usually more _______than hypothesis.
    A. complex
  26. A _______ is theory that has been substantially verified.

    B. Law
  27. Most scientific laws represent:
    A)hypotheses that have been substantially verified.
    B)idealized real-world relationships.
    C)restrictions on behavior imposed by a governing body.
    D)partially verified relationships that cannot be directly observed.
    B. idealized real-world relationships
  28. A specific implementation of a more general theoretical view is referred to as a:
    D. Model
  29. According to your text, when creating a computer model you must:
    A)be specific about the variables included.
    B)provide only general parameters for the variables involved.
    C)avoid references to established theories and models.
    D)avoid the temptation to compare competing theories.
    C. avoid references to established theories and models.
  30. Dr. Smith proposes that alcohol affects aggression by first affecting serotonin levels in the brain that then inhibit portions of the brain that normally inhibit aggression. Dr. Smith is proposing a(n) _________ explanation in this case.
    A. mechanistic
  31. A(n) ___________ explanation describes an attribute or characteristic in terms of what it does for the organism.
    B. functional
  32. A theory that specifies the variables and constants with which it works numerically is termed:
    A. quantitative
  33. A theory like the correspondent inference theory of attribution, which verbally states the relationships among variables, would best be classified as a(n):
    A)analogical theory.
    B)fundamental theory.
    C)quantitative theory.
    D)qualitative theory.
    D. qualitative theory
  34. A theory that specifies how variables relate to one another but makes no attempt to explain those relationships would be classified as a(n) _________ theory.
    C. descriptive
  35. A theory that explains "drive" as a kind of pressure that builds up in an organism like steam in an engine would be termed:
    C. analogical
  36. According to your text, the most likely reason that fundamental theories are rare in psychology is that:
    A)it is not possible to generate specific enough hypotheses to test.
    B)the systems studied in psychology are very complex.
    C)as scientists, psychologists are not sophisticated enough to develop such theories.
    D)All of the aboveE)Both a and b
    B. the systems studied in psychology are very complex
  37. Theories differ in:
    A)whether they are quantitative or qualitative.
    B)level of description.
    C)domain or scope.
    D)All of the above
    D. all of the above
  38. Theory A attempts to describe how perceptual mechanisms of the visual system give rise to visual perceptions, including normal and illusory ones. Theory B attempts to account for the Mueller–Lyer illusion. We can say that, of the two theories, Theory A:
    A)is more quantitative.
    B)is more qualitative.
    C)is more fundamental.
    D)has a wider domain.
    D. has a wider domain.
  39. The role of theory in science is to:
    A)provide understanding.
    B)provide a basis for prediction.
    C)generating research.
    D)All of the above
    D. all of the above
  40. If a theory offers good grounds for believing that the phenomenon would occur under the specified conditions, that theory is said:
    A)to be testable.
    B)to have explanatory relevance.
    C)to have heuristic value.
    D)to be accurate.
    B. to have explanatory relevance
  41. A theory with _________ can be evaluated empirically and is capable of failing the empirical test.
    A)explanatory relevance
    B)heuristic value
    D)predictive value
    C. testability
  42. Although a wrong theory may fail to provide a true understanding of the phenomena with which it deals, it may nevertheless:
    A)make correct predictions.
    B)provide a correct description of the underlying processes.
    C)give correct interpretations of the data.
    D)All of the above
    A. make correct predictions
  43. Theory A accounts for behavior with two assumptions, whereas Theory B accounts for the same behavior with five assumptions. In this case, we would say that Theory A __________ than Theory B.
    A)has more explanatory relevance
    B)is more parsimonious
    C)is more testable
    D)has more heuristic value
    B. more parsimonious
  44. If a theory provides ideas for new research, it is said to have:
    C)heuristic value.
    C. heuristic value
  45. A good theory should:
    A)account for the existing data within its scope.
    B)offer solid grounds for believing that predicted phenomena would occur under the specified conditions.
    C)be capable of failing some empirical test.
    D)All of the above
    D. all of the above
  46. According to your text, the final step in the theory construction process is to:

    C) subject it to rigorous empirical test.
  47. A theory is usually tested by:

    C) setting up conditions to test whether effects predicted by a theory occur.
  48. If you attempt to show that predictions of a theory are true, you are using:

    C) a confirmational strategy.
  49. According to your text, adequately testing a theory requires using:

    C) both confirmational and disconfirmational strategies together.
  50. When an experiment rules out one of several alternative explanations and you design an experiment to test the remaining alternatives, you are using:

    C) strong inference.
  51. According to your text, before trying to develop a theory that goes beyond a simple hypothesis, you should:

    A) wait until an adequate observational base has been established.
  52. A ______ is designed to account for known relationships among given variables and behavior, generate new research questions through deductive reasoning.
  53. Published research offers a nearly limitless source of____observation.
  54. Your own ongoing or previous research can be a source of_____ideas.
  55. To be answerable by application of the scientific method, a question must be
  56. Without the use of _________definitions, a question cannot be answered meaningfully within the scientific method.
  57. A question is probably_______if the answer can support only one among several competing hypotheses or theoretical views.
  58. Before you design your study, you should always conduct a_______
    literature review
  59. A textbook is an example of a(n)_____source of research
  60. The value of secondary sources of research information (such as review articles) lies in their ability to______,_____ and______results from related research studies.
    integrate or present or summarize
  61. ______is used to do a computer search of the Psychological Abstracts.
  62. ________provides full text versions of articles published in APA journals.
  63. A journal is said to be_______if the articles it contains have been subjected to review by other researchers in the field.
  64. Full-text versions of articles from a variety of publications can be found by using________.
  65. Personal replies by researchers to inquiries about their research come under the heading of_________.
    personal communication
  66. The author should clearly state the purpose of a study and any hypotheses in the______of an APA-style research paper.
  67. The results of statistical tests are presented in the_______section of a research paper.
  68. Because of the file drawer phenomenon, published findings as a group may be_____reliable than they seem.
  69. Results of a study are less likely to be accepted for publication if they fail to show_______with previous knowledge.
  70. When determining whether to accept or reject a paper, editors and reviewers must assess the degree to which the reported findings contribute to the______of knowledge
  71. ______is the practice of having other researchers in the area judge whether a research paper should be published.
    Peer review
  72. According to the text, values can creep into science when scientists move from_____to_____.
    what ought to be or what is
  73. The three broad categories of research ideas are:
    A)experience, deduction, and theory.
    B)theory, models, and application.
    C)experience, theory, and application.
    D)experience, theory, and models.
    experience, theory, and application.
  74. Casual observation of your pet hamster's behavior would constitute what kind of observation?
  75. According to your text, unsystematic observation is a good source of:
    general research ideas
  76. A valuable source of systematic observation is:
    published research reports
  77. Questions concerning whether the results from published research apply to participants of various ethnic backgrounds, races, or political beliefs is an example of ________ as a source of research ideas.
    unsystematic observation
  78. Marco, a psychology graduate student, is in the library poring over research articles to help him get an idea for his master's thesis. In this example, Marco is using ________ to get a research idea.
  79. A set of assumptions about the causes for behavior and the rules that specify how the causes operate is your text's definition for a(n):
  80. According to your text, a theory can direct research when:
    A)you want to predict behavior under new combinations of variables.
    B)two theories make competing predictions about the causes for behavior.
    C)you want to see if a theoretical prediction applies in the real world.
    D)All of the above
    E)Both a and b
    E. both a and b
  81. If you designed an experiment to investigate the factors that cause patients to stick to diet and exercise programs, your research is primarily driven by a focus on:
  82. Which of the following questions could (at least in theory) be answered using the scientific method?
    A)How many angels can stand on the head of a pin?
    B)Is abortion moral or immoral?
    C)What conditions contribute to terrorism?D)Should prayer be encouraged in public schools?
    what conditions contribute to terrorism?
  83. An empirical question is one:
    A)that can be answered by objective observation.
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