1. Hypothesis
    a statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory
  2. Variable
    a factor thought to be significant for human behavoir, which can vary (or change) from one case to another
  3. Operational definition
    the way in which a researcher measures a variable
  4. Research method (or research design)
    one of six procedures that sociologists use to collect date: surveys, participant observation, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures
  5. Validity
    the extent to which an operational definition measures what it was intended to measure
  6. Reliability
    the extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results
  7. Replication
    repeating a study in order to test its findings
  8. Survey
    the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions
  9. Population
    the target group to be studied
  10. Sample
    the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied
  11. Random sample
    a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
  12. Stratified random sample
    a sample from selected subgroups of the target population in which everyone in those subgroups has an equal chance of being included in the research
  13. Respondents
    people who respond to a survey, either in interviews or by self-administered questionnaires
  14. Questionnaire
    a list of questions to be asked of respondents
  15. Self-administered questionnaires
    questionnaires that respondents fill out
  16. Interview
    direct questioning of respondents
  17. Interviewer bias
    effects that interviewers have on respondents that lead to biased answers
  18. Structured interviews
    interviews that use closed-ended questions
  19. Closed-ended questions
    questions that are followed by a list of possible answers to be selected by the respondent
  20. Unstructured interviews
    interviews that use open-ended questions
  21. Open-ended questions
    questions that respondents answer in their own words
  22. Rapport
    a feeling of trust between researchers and the people they are studying
  23. Participant observation (or fieldwork)
    research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting
  24. Generalizability
    the extent to which the findings from one group (or sample) can be generalized or applied to other groups (or populations)
  25. Secondary analysis
    the analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers
  26. Documents
    in its narrow sense, written sources that provide data; in its extended sense, archival material of any sort, including photographs, movies, CDs, DVDs, and so on
  27. Experimental group
    the group of subjects who are exposed to the independent variable
  28. Control group
    the group of subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable
  29. independent variable
    a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable
  30. Dependent variable
    a factor that is changed by and independent variable
  31. Unobtrusive measures
    ways of observing people who do not know they are being studied
  32. Quanitiative research methods
    research in which the emphasis is placed on measurement, the use of statistics, and numbers
  33. Qualitative research methods
    research in which the emphasis is placed on observing, describing, and interpreting people's behavior
Card Set
Sociology 101 ch5