Application of Biomechanics - walking

  1. What is locomotion?
    occurs from the repetition of the gait cycle.
  2. What is the gait cycle?
    The time between successive ground contacts of the same foot
  3. Phases of the gait cycle and how many cycles are passed through in a single gait cycle?
    • Stance phase
    • Swing Phase;
    • Each extremity passes through 2 phases
  4. What is a stride?
    The time between ground contacts of the right heel.
  5. What is a stride length?
    Measured from initial contact of one lower extremity to the point at which the same extremity contacts the ground again
  6. What is a step?
    Half of a stride; the time from ground contact of one heel to ground contact of the other heel
  7. What the % of the gait cycle is spent in stance and what % of the gait cycle is spent in swing?
    • 60% in stance;
    • 40% in swing;
  8. What is Stance phase?
    Phase of walking gait cycle where foot is in contact with the ground
  9. What is swing?
    Phase of normal walking gait cycle where foot is not in contact with the ground
  10. What is the typcial walking speed in adults and when does it decrease?
    • 1.5 m/s;
    • Decreases occur with aging, injury, and disease
  11. What is a typical stride length and what is this known as?
    • 1.5 meter;
    • known as cycle length
  12. What is a typical stride rate and what is this known as?
    • 1 cycle/second;
    • known as cycle rate;
  13. What else increases with increased gait speed?
    Cycle length and cycle rate
  14. Describe pelvic movement during walking.
    • In frontal plane, moves 5 cm on each side, alternating as leg assumes a support role;
    • In transverse plane, rotates 8 degrees, half anteriorly, half posteriorly
  15. What is the GRF patter in normal walking gait?
    • Bimodal (two peaks) in shape and of maximal magnitude on the order of 1 to 1.2 fold the body weight;
    • Two peaks represent heel contact to midstance and midstance to push-off
  16. Describe the Stance Phase
    • (HF-MH-T)
    • 1) Heel Strike - begins when one extremity contacts the ground
    • 2) Foot Flat
    • 3) Midstance
    • 4) Heel off
    • 5) Toe Off - continues as long as some portion of the foot is in contact with the ground
  17. Describe the Swing Phase
    • Begins when the toe of one extremity leaves the ground;
    • Ends just before the heel strike or contact of the same extremity
    • 1) Initial swing
    • 2) Midswing
    • 3) Terminal swing
  18. Reasons and causes why abnormal walking gait occurs?
    • Pain from injury;
    • Decreased flexibility or range of motion;
    • Muscular weakness;
    • Neurological disorders
  19. What does muscular weakness in the gluteus maximus contribute to?
    Anterior lean of the upper body at heel strike
  20. What does muscular weakness in the gluteus medius and minimus contribute to?
    Decrease in stabilizing function during the stance phase of gait, possibly leading to an increased lateral shift in the pelvis and side-to-side movement during the gait
  21. What does muscular weakness in the plantarflexors contribute to?
    Reduced push-off and thus step length on the affected side
  22. What does muscular weakness in the dorsiflexor contribute to?
    Slapping of the foot during heel contact and increased knee and hip flexion during the swing phase
  23. What does muscular weakness in the quadriceps femoris contribute to?
    Forward lean of the trunk or hyperextension of the knee joint
  24. What is hemiplegia?
    The affected leg is often circumducted during the swing phase and the affected arm is held across the upper with flexion in the elbow, wrist, and hand
  25. What is parkinsonism?
    Can produce characteristic gait pattern of increased hip and knee flexion, forward trunk lean and shuffling step.
Card Set
Application of Biomechanics - walking
The application of biomechanics in walking