# Application of Biomechanics - walking

 What is locomotion? occurs from the repetition of the gait cycle. What is the gait cycle? The time between successive ground contacts of the same foot Phases of the gait cycle and how many cycles are passed through in a single gait cycle? Stance phase Swing Phase;Each extremity passes through 2 phases What is a stride? The time between ground contacts of the right heel. What is a stride length? Measured from initial contact of one lower extremity to the point at which the same extremity contacts the ground again What is a step? Half of a stride; the time from ground contact of one heel to ground contact of the other heel What the % of the gait cycle is spent in stance and what % of the gait cycle is spent in swing? 60% in stance;40% in swing; What is Stance phase? Phase of walking gait cycle where foot is in contact with the ground What is swing? Phase of normal walking gait cycle where foot is not in contact with the ground What is the typcial walking speed in adults and when does it decrease? 1.5 m/s;Decreases occur with aging, injury, and disease What is a typical stride length and what is this known as? 1.5 meter;known as cycle length What is a typical stride rate and what is this known as? 1 cycle/second;known as cycle rate; What else increases with increased gait speed? Cycle length and cycle rate Describe pelvic movement during walking. In frontal plane, moves 5 cm on each side, alternating as leg assumes a support role;In transverse plane, rotates 8 degrees, half anteriorly, half posteriorly What is the GRF patter in normal walking gait? Bimodal (two peaks) in shape and of maximal magnitude on the order of 1 to 1.2 fold the body weight;Two peaks represent heel contact to midstance and midstance to push-off Describe the Stance Phase (HF-MH-T)1) Heel Strike - begins when one extremity contacts the ground2) Foot Flat3) Midstance4) Heel off5) Toe Off - continues as long as some portion of the foot is in contact with the ground Describe the Swing Phase Begins when the toe of one extremity leaves the ground;Ends just before the heel strike or contact of the same extremity1) Initial swing2) Midswing3) Terminal swing Reasons and causes why abnormal walking gait occurs? Pain from injury; Decreased flexibility or range of motion;Muscular weakness;Neurological disorders What does muscular weakness in the gluteus maximus contribute to? Anterior lean of the upper body at heel strike What does muscular weakness in the gluteus medius and minimus contribute to? Decrease in stabilizing function during the stance phase of gait, possibly leading to an increased lateral shift in the pelvis and side-to-side movement during the gait What does muscular weakness in the plantarflexors contribute to? Reduced push-off and thus step length on the affected side What does muscular weakness in the dorsiflexor contribute to? Slapping of the foot during heel contact and increased knee and hip flexion during the swing phase What does muscular weakness in the quadriceps femoris contribute to? Forward lean of the trunk or hyperextension of the knee joint What is hemiplegia? The affected leg is often circumducted during the swing phase and the affected arm is held across the upper with flexion in the elbow, wrist, and hand What is parkinsonism? Can produce characteristic gait pattern of increased hip and knee flexion, forward trunk lean and shuffling step. Authorelby317 ID24453 Card SetApplication of Biomechanics - walking DescriptionThe application of biomechanics in walking Updated2010-06-22T02:01:30Z Show Answers