RAD-128 Ch.7 Pediatric Imaging

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  1. what is the age range of the pediatric patient
    infant - 15/16 years of age
  2. what are the age limits in infants toddlers preschoolers school age kids
    • •Infants (Birth to 12 months)
    • •Toddlers (1 to 3 years)
    • •Preschooler (3 to 5 years)
    • •School age (6 to 12 years)
  3. how should we approach childern in the hospital
    • •Regard children with honesty, friendliness
    • Patience & understanding
    • •Realize children may see the hospital setting differently
    • Positive attitude
    • Room is dark, X-ray equipment is large & can be frightening
    • Choose your words wisely (Shoot & Dye)
  4. when greeting and approaching a child what must we establish
    a rapport (a close and harmonious relationship in which the people or groups concerned understand each other's feelings or ideas and communicate well.)
  5. when speaking to a child how must we respond back
    respond back by kneeling down and getting down to the childs eye level
  6. what type of voice should we use with pediatrics
    soft tone of voice and explain to the child in simple terms what will happen
  7. when approaching a child who must we ask when in the need of help
    the parent
  8. when explaining a procedure to a child we must always be ______
    honest never tell a child a painful procedure will not hurt
  9. what are the primary centers of ossification
    secondary centers?
    what is the epiphyseal plate
    at what age is skeletal growth complete
    • diaphysis
    • epiphyses
    • area between diaphysis and epiphysis
    • 25 yrs
  10. when dealing with a high risk newborn infant what must we check for
    isolation or reverse isolation
  11. when dealing with high risk newborn infant we must wear what and what is the preparation for our room and equipment
    must wear ppe and our room and equipment must be cleaned before pt comes down
  12. when imaging an infant what must we always need
    an assistant
  13. what is the greatest hazard to premature infants
  14. premature infants should be brough to the department in an ______
    incubator (an enclosed apparatus providing a controlled environment for the care and protection of premature or unusually small babies.)
  15. if there are any pauses in an exam of an infant what must we do
    we must place them inside the incubator each time
  16. what are the stress factors of infants & toddlers 6mnths-3yrs old
    pain. separation from parents, limitation of motor skills. loss of routines and rituals
  17. should we leave an immobilized child alone ina room
    never only for the moment needed to make the xposure
  18. how must the atmospher be when dealing with preschoolers 3-6yrs old
    what do preschoolers loce
    • we use baby words like (childs prespective)
    • xray machine is a big camera
    • create a gamelike atmospher
    • usually requires immobilization
    • bandaids
  19. when dealing with school aged children 6-1 years old what can cause embarrassment in the child
    ignoring their modesty
  20. what other factor is important when dealing with school aged children
    independence (freedom of choice)
  21. children 7-8yrs + should never be forced to have an exam except in cases of an ______

    Enlist the help of a trusted physician or nurse
  22. when dealing with adolescents what kind of attitude must we keep
    • nonjudgemental attitude (be direct and honest with explanations)
    • –Many have a great deal of misinformation concerning medical care–Allow them to ask questions–Be aware of changing body image –Privacy & modesty should be respected–Only in life threatening situations should an adolescent be forced into having an exam
  23. when transporting infants we must check for what
    • id the patient
    • use portable incubator gurney or wheelchair
    • hold infants wit support
  24. when are immobilizers used
    Immobilizers are used when a child is not able stay in place long enough for a successful diagnostic procedure

    Immobilizers should be used only when no other means are safe or logical

    Images should be of high quality

    May require the help of the parents and other technologists
  25. list some immobilzers
    • pigg-o-stat
    • sheet immobilizers
    • mummy style sheet wrap
    • infantainer
    • sandbags posi-tot
    • tam-em board
  26. why is radiaition protection a priority for infants and children
    b/c of the radiosensitivity of their rapid and changing cell growth
  27. What are all the factors included with radiation protection
    • high ma short exposure time
    • immobilation
    • gonadal shielding
    • close collimation
    • low dose techniques
    • use technique charts with body weights
    • minimum # of exposures
  28. what is a image gently
    is a campaign dedicated to radiation protection for children.
  29. what is child abuse
    Child abuse is any act of omission or commission that endangers or impairs a child’s physical or emotional health and development.
  30. Child abuse includes of the following:
    • physical abuse and neglect
    • emotional abuse
    • sexual abuse
  31. what are the exams associated with SNAT and NAT series
    chest skull spine upper and lower limbs
  32. what are indications of physical abuse
    • child states te injury was caused by abuse
    • knowledge that a childs injury is unusual for specific age group
    • parent is unable to explain the cause of injury
  33. what are the behavior indicatiors of physical abuse
    • Child is excessively passive, compliant, or fearful
    • Child is excessively aggressive or physically violent
    • Child and/or caretaker attempts to hide injuries
    • Child makes detailed and age-inappropriate comments regarding sexual behavior
  34. in most states if the HCW suspects child abuse and is proven false are they protected
  35. a child who is adminstered with drugs must remain hospitalized until when
    who releases the patient when a child receives contrast or is sedated
    • until the child wakes up
    • physician
  36. is the radiographer allowed to administer drugs to a child under the age of 18
    no but if a registered nurse is unavailable to administer contrast media to patients under 18 years of age, with proper education and certification, the radiographer may administer the contrast media under the Radiologist’s approval.
  37. what is differenct in comparison with adults when adminstering medication to children
    drug absorption, biotransformation, distribution
  38. when cathetrizing a pediatric patient who is reccommended to partake in the procedure
    nurses of physicians who have specialized education in pediatrics
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RAD-128 Ch.7 Pediatric Imaging
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