History Final Exam UNFINISHED

  1. Mercantilism
    • called for the acquisition of gold and silver wealth through trade;
    • trade should be supported through government regulation to
    • achieve a favorable trade balance
  2. natural laws
    according to Hobbes and Locke, human nature is governed by this
  3. natural rights
    life, liberty and property are examples of rights
  4. social contract
    an agreement by which people give up their natural rights for an organized society
  5. physiocrat
    • used natural laws to define economic systems; believed that government
    • should not interfere with trade (free trade) and that real wealth came from
    • making the land more productive
  6. laissez faire
    a policy that allows businesses to operate without government interference
  7. salon
    a social gathering in which artists and thinkers exchange ideas
  8. enlightened despot
    • used Enlightenment ideas to bring about political and social change;
    • Joseph II, Catherine the Great; Frederick the Great
  9. constitutional government
    powers are defined and limited by law
  10. social contract; people are born naturally cruel, greedy and selfish;
    Leviathan; absolute monarchy best controlled people
    Thomas Hobbes
  11. believed that people were born with natural rights and that they
    formed governments to protect those rights. People had a right to
    overthrow a government that fails to protect their natural rights.
    This was radical- people used to believe that government existedto
    serve the needs of the ruler, not "the people"
    John Locke
  12. Believed the separation of powers protected the liberties
    of the people. "in order to have liberty, it is necessary that
    the powers of the government be separated
  13. believed that freedom of speech and thought were
    essential rights. "I do not agree with a word you say, but
    I will defend to the death your right to say it"
  14. editor of the controversial Encyclopedia
    Denis Diderot
  15. philosopher who believed people were basically good but
    corrupted society and that in an ideal society, people
    would put the collective good over their own interests;
    The Social Contract
    Jean- Jacques Rousseau
  16. "there should be no government regulations on trade"
    laissez faire; economist
    Adam Smith
  17. emperor of Austria; son of Maria Theresa;
    wanted to improve the life of his people
    Joseph II
  18. Prussian king; "first servant of the state;" hired Voltaire to
    open a science academy
    Frederick II
  19. exchanged letters with Voltaire and Diderot
    Catherine the Great
  20. Why did the Enlightenment use reason
    to solve society's problems?
    • Because of the success of the scientific revolution; the RCC didn't support this;
    • not all monarchs were enlightened;
    • the Industrial Revolution came later
  21. What are Enlightenment ideas that are now identified as
    American ideals?
    • Freedom of speech, freedom of religion, the idea that all
    • people are created equal under the law, the right of everyone
    • to own property, liberty and justice for all, the will of the majority
    • as the basis for government.
  22. First Estate
    • the clergy; provided some social services;
    • paid no direct taxes to the state
  23. Second Estate
    • the nobles; owned land but had little money income;
    • freedom from paying taxes; rights included top jobs and hunting wild game
  24. Third Estate
    • 98% of the population; included rural peasants and urban workers
    • as well as the bourgeoisie; burdened by taxes; supported France's
    • economy
  25. Bourgeoisie
    wealthiest members of the Third Estate; (middle class of 3rd)
  26. Estates General
    • hadn't met for 175 years until summoned by Louis XVI;
    • each Estate provided cahiers to the king' deadlocked over the
    • issue of voting; Third Estate walked out and formed the National
    • Assembly
  27. Deficit Spending
    spending more money than is taken in
  28. Bastille
    • the prison that was rumored to have weapons; its "storming"
    • set the revolution into motion and pushed the National
    • Assembly into action
  29. National Assembly
    • famous for their Tennis Court Oath; moderate phase of the French Revolution,
    • issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and the Constitution
    • of 1791
  30. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
    stated that all men were born free and equal in rights
  31. Constitution of 1791
    • established a new Legislative Assembly with the power to make laws,
    • collect taxes and decide on the issues of war and peace; limited monarchy
    • instead of absolute monarchy
  32. Waterloo
    site of Napoleon's defeat
  33. Suffrage
    the right to vote
  34. Emigre
    a person who fled revolutionary France to line in another country
  35. Sans-culottes
    "without culottes", working class revolutionaries
  36. Nationalism
    a feeling of pride in and intense devotion to one's country
  37. Reign of Terror
    • when Robespierre tried to crush all opposition to the revolution;
    • many were executed with the guillotine
  38. Napoleonic Code
    guaranteed the equality of all citizens before the law
  39. Congress of Vienna
    • it's chief goal was to create a lasting peace by establishing strong
    • nations surrounding France and a balance of power and by protecting
    • the system of monarchy
  40. September massacres
    • ordinary citizens who were fired to fury by real and imagined grievances;
    • they attacked prison that held nobles and priests accused of political
    • offences and killed them, along with ordinary criminals. Bloodthirsty mobs?
    • Patriots?
  41. Toussaint L'Ouverture
    self educated, former slave who led the revolution in Haiti
Card Set
History Final Exam UNFINISHED
Absolutism, Enlightenment,French Revolution, Industrial Revolution