The nurse assesses that the patient’s urine has become much more concentrated, which results from the effect of:
C. Aldosterone acts on the kidney tubules, affecting water retention and its attendant urine concentration.
When the water absorption in the renal tubules becomes greater than normal, the nurse anticipates that the urine will become:
D. When more water is kept back in the body, the water left to form urine is less; therefore, the urine is more concentrated.
The nurse explains that when oxygen is directed out of the arteries and into the capillaries, this process is:
A. Diffusion is the movement from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.
The patient’s IV has been infusing at a very high rate and now the patient appears to be in fluid volume overload, as indicated by:
B. An IV infusing at a high rate is used to increase intravascular fluid volume, but there is an equalization level, after which the patient goes into fluid overload; this results in pulmonary edema.
A small child is hospitalized with severe metabolic acidosis after ingesting a whole bottle of baby aspirin about 8 hours ago. The nursing care for this patient is geared toward reassuring the patient and:
A. The baby aspirin was ingested too long ago to have vomiting or stomach aspiration be of any use. The child requires frequent assessment of neurological function because he or she may need mechanical ventilation.
The nurse explains that fluids carrying nutrients and wastes on a random basis throughout the body are carried primarily by:
D. The blood and lymph are the main media for transport of nutrients and wastes in the body.
The nurse clarifies that electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium, when dissolved, break down into smaller particles, which are called:
B. Electrolytes dissolved in water are ions.
The nurse assists a dyspneic patient to sit in a high Fowler’s position. This aids gravity in helping the movement of oxygen from the pulmonary capillaries into the blood by the process of:
C. Fowler’s position increases blood flow through the lungs and therefore facilitates better oxygen diffusion.
The nurse evaluates the laboratory reports on electrolyte values carefully to assess the balance between positive and negative ions, which is regulated by the process of:
D. Diffusion allows the ions to support homeostatic balance.
When the nurse hangs an IV bag with Na+, K+, and Cl-, he is aware that ____ are being administered.
D. Sodium, potassium, and chlorides are electrolytes.
Each compartment of the body has a water-fluid distribution movement of its own. These fluids move and distribute themselves between these compartments via a process known as:
C. The intracellular and extracellular compartments contain water and dissolved substances. The water filters back and forth as needed to maintain homeostasis via osmolarity.
The LPN is preparing to add a new IV of D5W with potassium to an existing line. The LPN notices that there is only 25 mL of urine collected over the last hour. The LPN’s best intervention is to:
D. The low urine output will allow K+ to build up to hazardous levels. K+ administration is dependent on adequate urine output. LPNs are required to report untoward findings to the RN.
Both the intracellular and extracellular fluids are made up of many different electrolytes, but the most abundant intracellular positively charged electrolyte is:
C. K+ is the most abundant electrolyte in the cell.
The patient with metabolic acidosis should be closely monitored for the compensatory condition of:
B. When in metabolic acidosis, the body attempts to compensate by increasing respirations and creating respiratory alkalosis.
The K+ laboratory report shows a level of 5.2 mEq/L. The nurse will assess the patient closely for:
A. Arrhythmias can be triggered by hyperkalemia.
A patient has renal damage because of diabetes, which puts the patient at risk for:
C. When the renal system cannot rid the body of enough potassium, this electrolyte builds up and a condition called hyperkalemia develops.
Hyperchloremia, as noted on a laboratory report, is usually associated with:
B. Chlorides bind with positively charged ions such as K+ in the patient with metabolic acidosis.
Older adults are at risk for dehydration because of reduced thirst and aging kidneys. The nurse monitors for the early indicator of dehydration, which is:
D. Because older adults have poor skin turgor and urine concentration is difficult to assess, constipation is the earliest indicator of fluid deficit.
The nurse has two newly admitted patients with dehydration. One patient is dehydrated from heat exhaustion and the other from an overdose of Lasix. The finding that will present in both patients is:
A. Water has been lost; therefore, the red blood cells will concentrate and show artificially high hemoglobin and hematocrit values.
The nurse clarifies that fluid balance is mainly monitored in the body by two systems, which are the:
C. The monitoring of basic fluid balance in the body is done by the renal and circulatory systems.
The nurse is aware that extracellular fluid osmolarity is primarily maintained by:
D. Sodium as the primary extracellular electrolyte controls the osmolarity of the extracellular fluid, either too much or too little.
The nurse instructs that the healthy kidney adjusts the volume and composition of the filtrate that prevents excessive fluid loss by:
C. The kidney reabsorbs water and other electrolytes in response to chemical receptors.
The nurse instructs a family that the blood being brought by the incoming capillaries into the kidney, which contains nitrogenous substances to be excreted as waste, involves a process of:
D. Capillary blood from the renal arteries filters into the kidney for processing as the first step.
Because the patient is hypovolemic, the nurse anticipates that treatment will be focused on:
B. A fluid volume deficit occurs when there is inadequate fluid volume in the body; the nurse may encourage drinking fluids as a nursing action.
The patient is frequently thirsty. The nurse assesses this symptom as:
C. Normal thirst is the body’s way of calling for an increase in fluid volume, which could mean that there is too much sodium and too little water.
The nurse would instruct the patient with a K+ level of 6.2 to avoid (select all that apply):
All the foods listed have a high concentration of K+ and should be avoided in a patient with a high K+ serum level.
The nurse assesses that the patient with congestive heart failure who is being treated with a diuretic has lost 5 pounds in 1 day. This weight loss is equivalent to the loss of ____________________ liters of fluid.
The nurse assesses deep rapid respirations in a patient with metabolic acidosis to be an indicator of the homeostatic system at work to reduce the ____________________ level.
The nurse would anticipate in a patient with respiratory acidosis that the blood pH reading would be lower than ____________________.
The nurse cautions a group of high school athletes about fluid loss in hot, dry weather, because the normal loss from respiration, which is ____________________ to ____________________ mL/day, is doubled.