What are the appendages of bacteria?
- Flagella external and axial filaments- provide mobility
- Fimbriae adhere to the outside enviornment.. sticks to things and provide attachments or channels
- Pili-aka sex pilus are used in the mating process called conjugation
What are the different types of flagella? 5.
- 1. Monotrichous - single flagellum at one end
- 2. Lophotrichous - small bunches emerging from the same site
- 3. Ampitrichous - flagella at both ends of cell
- 4. Peritrichous - flagella dispersed over surface of cell; slowest
- 5. Periplasmatic - flagella corkscrew shaped bacteria called spirochetes
What are cilia and fimbriae? what is the difference between the 2?
- Fimbriae - surface appendages of bacteria involved in interaction with other cells
- Cilia - appendages used for locomotion of cells
5. When bacteria transfer DNA from one bacteria to another, what appendage do they use?
Philus (pili) aka sex pilus - used in mating process called conjugation
What is common among all bacterial structures?
Cell envelope, made up of cell wall and cell membrane
What are ribosomes and what do they do?
- Ribosomes = site of protein synthesis
- 1. composed of RNA and proteins
- 2. scattered in cytoplasm or associated with RER
- 3. Larger than prokaryotic ribosomes
- 4. Function in protein synthesis
What is chemotaxis and what do you need to perform chemotaxis?
- Release of chemicals for chemotaxis to happen.
- Postivie chemotaxis = movement of a cell in the direction of a chemcial reaction
- Negative chemotaxis = movement of a cell away from a repellant (harmful compound)
What structures will protect bacteria from being eated by phagocytes?
Glyocalyces - a capsular coating that blocks mechanisms from phagocytes
What structure will prevent bacteria from bursting?
Peptidoglycan layer - repeating framework of long glycan chains
What chemicals or materials are found in bacteria cell walls?
Peptidoglycan, teicholic acid, lipteichoic acid, mycolic acid and polysaccharides
What structures will help bacteria to cause disease?
Rikkettsias - small gram negative bacteria, most are pathogens
Where is ATP made in bacteria?
- ATP synthesis occurs in cell membrane
What is the function of endospores?
- Allows bacteria to go dormant
- 1. resistance linked to high levels of calcium and dipicolinic acid
- 2. dehydrated, metabolically inactive
- 3. thick coat
- 4. longevity verges on immortality, 250 million yrs
What are some bacterial shapes? 5.
- Coccus - ball shaped
- Bacillus - cylinder shaped (longer then wide)
- Spirillum - spiral shaped cylinder
- Cocobacillus - short and plump cylinder
- Vibro - gently curved cylinder shaped
What are examples of protists?
- Trypanosoma brucei
- slime mold
- giant kelp
What microbes dont normally have cell walls?
Mycoplasmas they have sterol that resists lyses. This bacteria causes pneumonia
What would we find in eukaryotes that we wouldnt find in prokaryotes?
Nucleous and organelles
What is the structure of mitochondria?
- 1. function in energy production
- 2. consist of an outer membrane and an inner membrane with folds called, cristae
- 3. cristae hold the enzymes and electron carriers of aerobic respiration
- 4. divide independtly of cell
- 5. contain DNA and prokaryotic ribosomes
What can we find in algae that we cant find in protozoa?
Algae have chloroplasts
What is a cytoskeleton?
Consists of microfilaments and microtubules, maintains the shape of cells and produces movement of cytoplasm within the cell, movement of chromosomes at the cell division
What term describes how fungi can grow as either a mold or yeast?
Dimorphic - fungi reacts to rising change of temperature
What is the active feeding stage of protozoa?
Trophozoite - motile feeding stage
What are some general examples of parasitic worms?
- tape worms
What are some general characteristics about parasitic worms?
Usually large enough to be seen by the naked eye, infective abilites
What are the reproductive lifecycles of parasitic worms?
- Fertilized egg, larvae, and adult stage.
- In the adult statge for continued survival as a species it must complete the life cycle by transmitting an infective form, usually an egg or larvae to the body of another host
What do viruses contain?
Caspids or shell that surrounds the nucleic acids that is called neuclocaspid or naked virus. Some animal viruses are enveloped , that is they have an additional covering over the caspid.
What are the general properties/characteristics of viruses?
- Viral components: caspids, nucleic acids and envelopes
- Viruses bear no resemblance to cells - lack protein - sythnesizing machinery
- Viruses contain only the parts needed to invade and control a host cell
What are some hosts or target of viruses?
Viruses parasitize all types of cells including bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa, animals and plants. Only limited by host range by specifically of absorption of virus to host.
What is nucleic acid type in viruses?
either DNA or RNA but NEVER both
What is the structure/function for viruses that attack bacteria?
Temperate phages - DNA undergo absorption and penetration into the bacterial hosts but are not released immediately
Major steps for viral replication from beginning to end?
Absorption, penetration, uncoating, synthesis, assembly and release
Steps of viral replication compared to bacterial viruses VS animal viruses.. what step is missing?
No uncoating of nucleic acid
DNA/RNA viruses, where do they normally copy themselves?
- DNA = replicated in host cells nucleaus
- RNA = replicated in cytoplasm
How do you treat viral diseases?
- Antiviral drugs, target host cells block the viral replication - disrupts the virus cycle.
- main problem is bad side effects
Infectious protein particles, what are they called?
- Prions - misfolded proteins, contain no nucleic acid
- Cause transmissable spongiform encephalopathies - fatal neurodegenrative diseases