chapter 5 exam 2

  1. those groups of people who have been historically and systematically excluded from advantage, or oppressed by a dominant group
    marginalized group
  2. categories of marginalization?
    race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexual orientation, religion, physical ability and immigrant status
  3. a process and a set of institutional relationships by which groups are historically and systematically excluded from advantage or oppressed by a dominant group
    structural inequality
  4. access by all members at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life
    food security
  5. limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods
    food insecurity
  6. term used for indigenous people of america
    American indian/Alaska native nations or tribes
  7. where are there a majority of native americans?
    out west past the mississippi
  8. By state, where are all the native americans?
    California, Arizona, new mexico, and texas
  9. how did the native americans get to America?
    they came over on bearing strait
  10. how was native American history passed down?
    • verbally
    • no written history
  11. the earliest immigrants were?
    food foragers
  12. who were common ancestors of present day Chinese and Japanese?
    the earliest immigrants
  13. the earliest immigrants were homo sapiens that lacked?
    • tools
    • no agriculture
    • had dogs
  14. early descendants of modern native americans?
    Paleo-Indian period
  15. rudimentary tools?
    flint and obsidian (volcanic glass)
  16. in the paleo indian period what was the dietary staple?
  17. where meat was cooked?
  18. what occurred during the archaic indian period because of climate?
    drier, hotter climate promoted plant growth, gathering increased ----- grinding tools were made
  19. in what period was nutritional adequency good, and they had a varied diet
    archaic indian period
  20. where did the woodland Indians live?
    small villages near water
  21. what did the woodland Indians invent?
    • development of storage pit and pottery
    • bow and arrow
    • blow dart
    • hoe
  22. was there plant growing during the woodland Indians period?
    • yes plant domestication and horticulture
    • more growing of plants
  23. what did the Mississippian Indians advance?
    advanced social environment with increased interactions between nations
  24. where did missippian Indians settle?
    in fertile valleys where they began extensive agriculture
  25. staple crops of Mississippian indian period?
    corn, beans, squash
  26. 3 big food for native americans?
    • corn
    • beans
    • squash
  27. who settled in the southeast?
    5 civilized tribes
  28. who settled in the northeast?
    new York - Iroquois nations
  29. who settled in the south west
    Pablo communities
  30. who settled in the plains?
    Mississippi and Missouri rivers
  31. during what period did the Europeans arrive?
    colonial period
  32. what did the Europeans bring when they arrived?
    • horse and guns
    • disease
    • rye and wheat
    • cattle, hogs, sheep
    • distilled spirits
  33. what did the Europeans do to the native americans?
    • massacre
    • made them move off their land and tried to break up the groups
  34. what did the BIA want the Indians to do?
    follow US culture
  35. BIA?
    bureau of indian affairs
  36. what did the BIA do to the Indians?
    • tried to mainstream native americans
    • forced acculturation
    • sent children to boarding schools
  37. self determination and education act?
    promoted participation in government and education
  38. who founded the boarding schools?
    Richard pratt
  39. when were the native americans granted citizenship?
    in 1924 under the Snyder act
  40. why did the hopi and Iroquois reject US citizenship?
    in favor of their own indian citizenship under tribal sovereignty
  41. what did many native American do about the Snyder act?
    • they ran their own government still
    • didn't recognize US as a country
  42. land a tribe reserved for itself or assigned to the tribe when it relinquished other land areas to the US
  43. native americans had the worst of the three?
    • high poverty rate
    • low socioeconomic status
    • high unemployment rate
  44. what was extremely high among native americans?
  45. gender roles in native American culture?
    • men - hunter and gatherers
    • women- food gathering and preparation
  46. what is an important value?
    sharing food
  47. what is food used as?
    • medicines
    • rituals
    • ceremonies
  48. food is considered?
    • sacred
    • a precious resource
  49. what is food influenced by?
    geography and climate
  50. primary grain?
  51. why was meat valued?
    it was considered healthy
  52. protein source?
  53. herbal teas were used for
    enjoyment and health
  54. what is known as the 3 sisters?
    • corn
    • beans
    • squash
  55. t or f, there were a lot of sweets in the traditional diet
  56. core food of native americans
  57. maize is not a _____ powerhouse
  58. current US consumption of maize?
    up to 30% of food eaten has some tie to corn
  59. sweetener of choice in northeast?
    maple syrup
  60. original native American dishes in northeast?
    • clambake
    • baked beans
    • succotash
    • corn pudding
    • pumpkin pie
  61. southern has what kind of soil??
    rich soil with many food resources
  62. original native American dishes in the south?
    • grits
    • squirrel
    • sassafras
    • nuts
  63. sweetener of choice in south?
  64. plains Indians were?
    • nomadic
    • gathered wild plants
    • hunted wild game
  65. what did pueblo communities do in south west?
    farmed beans, chillies, corn and squash
  66. apache and Navajo were ? in south west
    nomadic hunter and gatherers
  67. nopales?
    prickly pears
  68. fruits and pads are ?
    rich in soluble fiber
  69. mesquite?
    • "the tree of life"
    • pods are ground into flour
    • good source of calcium, iron and zinc
  70. is mesquite is fermented what is it used for?
    alcoholic beverages
  71. cholla cactus?
    buds are rich in soluble fiber and iron
  72. what is cholla cactus used for?
    • culinary, medical, cosmetic
    • edible
  73. what do northwest coast nativesĀ eat?
    • salmon
    • berries
    • greens
  74. what do Alaskan natives eat?
    • diet marginal
    • semi nomadic
    • seal
    • walrus
    • whale
    • caribou
  75. traditional foods are still made for?
    special occasions
  76. substitutions made in contemporary food habits?
    • beef instead of game
    • white flour in frybread instead of corn and mesquite flour
  77. American pimas?
    • water supply was diverted
    • caused poverty, malnutrition and starvation
  78. commodity foods?
    lard, sugar and white flour
  79. who had to depend on commodity food?
  80. different about Mexican pimas?
    • only 8% had diabetes
    • population as a whole was not overweight
  81. genetic predisposition to store fat because inability to properly regulate blood sugar levels
    thrift gene hypothesis
Card Set
chapter 5 exam 2
native americans