chapter 4 biology

  1. cells are the fundamental units of life, all organisms are composed of cells, all cells come from pre-existing cells of life
    cell theory
  2. cells are small bc they need a high
  3. determines the amount of activity in the cell
  4. determines the amount of substances that can pass through the boundry
    surface area
  5. minimum resolution of human eye is 200 mm
    most cells are < 200 mm in size
  6. uses glass lenses and light
    light microscopes
  7. electromagnets focus an electron beam
    electron microscope
  8. all cells are surrounded by a phospholipid membrane/bilayer
    plasma membrane
  9. allows cells to maintain constant internal environment, a selectively permeable barrier, important in communication adn receiving signals, often has proteins for binding with adjacent cells
    plasma membrane
  10. bacteria and archaea (first cells) are
    prokaryotic cells
  11. dna is in a membrane-enclosed compartment called the nucleus
    eukarya cells
  12. very successful, they can live on a diversity of energy sourcces and inhabit every environment including extreme environments
  13. enclosed by a plasma membrane, dna is contained in the nucleoid, cytoplasm consists of cytosol (water and dissolved material) and suspended particles , ribosomes-site of prtein syntheses
    prokaryotic cells
  14. rigid cell wall outside the plasma membrane
  15. 10 times larger cells
    eukaryotic cells
  16. power house, energy, seperate membrane
  17. structural foundation (networks of proteins) "beams supporting a building", involved in cell and organelle movement
  18. holds ribosomes, most of lipids in proteins are made here, site of much protein synthesis
    rough endoplasmic reticulum
  19. separates the cell from its environment and regulates traffic of materials into and out of the cell, (imigration patrol), bilayer boundry
    plasma membrane
  20. they "bud off" from the ER, polysaccharides for plants synthesized, new synthesized proteins are delivered where function is needed, (fed ex), dispursed proteins, processes and packages proteins, in both animal and plant cells
    golgi apparatus
  21. no syntheses, no ribosomes, drugs are metabolized, lipids are made here, chemically modified drugs and pesticides, hydolysis of glycogen in animal cells
    smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  22. begins assembly of rbosomes (dark spot in plant cells)
  23. cellular digestive systems in which large molecules are hydrolyzed into usuable monomers,
    lysosomes and vacuoles
  24. perform photosynthesis
  25. membranous compartments, has specific roles in particular cell
  26. assembly devices, protein synthesis, inside rer
  27. homeostasis, selectively permeable barrier, substances to enter and leave the cell, boundary w the outside environment, communicating w adjacent cells and receiving signals , binding and adhering to adjacent cells
    plasma membrane roles
  28. consists of mostly water, dissolved material, material in cell outside cell wall,
  29. everything inside cell, fluid
  30. only 3 organelles w double bilayer membranes
    nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplast (plant)
  31. dna combines w proteins
  32. chromatin aggregates to form discrete
  33. includes endoplasmic reticulum and gogle apparatus
    endomembrane system
  34. huge surface area, network of interconnected membrane
    endoplasmic reticulum
  35. cis region trans region medial region
  36. vesicle that buds off from golgi, digestive dept/recycle dept, degestive enzymes, macroloecues, hydrolyzed into their monomers
  37. hydrolyze the food particles during digestion
    secondary lysosomes
  38. most unique,produced in plants and certain protists
  39. sites of photosynthesis, light energy is converted, chemical energy of bonds
  40. two membranes (inner (matrix of its own dna), and outerresistance to movement inside and out)
    mitochondria organelle
  41. serperate structures stacked onto each other forming grana, circular compartments, where photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts
  42. chloroplasts and mitochondria has its own dna outside of nucleus
  43. fluid in which suspends grana, contains ribosomes and dna
  44. red, orange, and yellow pigments, give color to plant organs such as flowers
  45. chloroplasts, leucoplasts and chromoplats are
  46. storage of starches and fats
  47. specialized enzymes, collect teh toxic peroxide, hydrogen peroxide, metabolizes toxins .. if not the cell will die
  48. lipids are converted in to carbs for transports to grwoing cells in plant cells only
  49. in plant cell, hollow region, water filled, provides pressure to keep cell intact, where plants store waste products and toxins, provides structural support, filled w fluid, stores pink/blue pigments
  50. supports and maintains its shape, various types movements, position organelles, fibers supports motor proteins, interacts w extracellular structure, anchor the cell in place
  51. 3 types of cytoskeleton structures
    microflilaments, intermediate filaments and micro tubules
  52. assembled by actins, provide their own structure
  53. made of fibers/proteins interwine w each other
    intermediate filaments
  54. tubular structures, tracks inside cell ( molecules follow to be delievered to the right place) slides through these tracks
  55. cellulose fibers, embedded in other complex polysaccharides
    cell wall
  56. adjacent plant cells is connected, plasma memebrane-lined channels
  57. outside the cell, protecting cell
  58. animal cells are surrounded or in contact w/... provides communication, movement of cell, chemical signaling
    extracellular matrix
  59. fibrous proteins
  60. 1.5 billion yrs ago, chloroplasts and mitochondria of eukaryotes are about the size of prokaryotic cells endo=inside symbiosis=linked together
  61. eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotes
    use nucleic acids as their geentic material, use the same 20 amino acids to make their proteins, use d sugars and L-amino acids
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chapter 4 biology