IS451m exam2 Vocab

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  1. Attribute
    - A characteristic associated with a folder or file used to help manage access.
  2. Auditing
    - In Windows Server 2008, a security capability that tracks activity on an object, such as reading, writing, creating, or deleting a file in a folder.
  3. Compiler
    - A program that reads lines of program code in a source fi le and converts the code into machine-language instructions the computer can execute.
  4. DFS topology
    - Applies to a domain-based DFS model and encompasses the DFS namespace root, shared folders, and replication folders.
  5. Directory Service Client (DSCIient)
    - Microsoft software for pre-Windows 2000 clients that connect to Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Server 2008 and enables those clients to view information published in Active Directory.
  6. discretionary access control list (DACL)
    - An access control list that manages access to an object, such as a folder, and that is configured by a server administrator or owner of the object.
  7. disk quota
    Allocating a specific amount of disk space to a user or application with the ability to ensure that the user or application cannot use more disk space than is specified in the allocation.
  8. Distributed File System (DFS)
    A system that enables folders shared from multiple computers to appear as though they exist in one centralized hierarchy of folders instead of on many different computers.
  9. domain-based DFS model
    A DFS model that uses Active Directory and is available only to servers and workstations that are members of a particular domain. The domain-based model enables a deep, root-based, hierarchical arrangement of shared folders that is published in Active Directory. DFS shared folders in the domain-based model can be replicated for fault tolerance and load balancing.
  10. dynamic-link library (DLL) files
    A library of files containing program code that can be called and run by Windows applications (and with SUA, also used by UNIX/Linux applications). See Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications.
  11. Encrypting File System (EFS)
    Set by an attribute of NTFS, this file system enables a user to encrypt the contents of a folder or a file so that it can only be accessed via private key code by the user who encrypted it. EFS adheres to the Data Encryption Standard’s expanded version for data protection.
  12. folder target
    A path in the Universal Naming Convention (UNC) format, such as to a DFS shared folder or to a different DFS path.
  13. inherited permissions
    - Permissions of a parent object that also apply to child objects of the parent, such as to subfolders within a folder.
  14. load balancing
    On a single server, distributing resources across multiple server disk drives and paths for better server response; and on multiple network servers, distributing resources across two or more servers for better server and network performance.
  15. namespace root
    The main container that holds DFS links to shared folders in a domain.
  16. Ownership
    Having the privilege to change permissions and to fully manipulate an object. The account that creates an object, such as a folder or printer, initially has ownership.
  17. Permissions
    In Windows Server 2008, privileges to access and manipulate resource objects, such as folders and printers; for example, the privilege to read a file or to create a new file.
  18. Publish
    Making an object, such as a printer or shared folder, available for users to access when they view Active Directory contents and so that the data associated with the object can be replicated.
  19. replication group
    A grouping of shared folders in a DFS namespace root that are replicated or copied to all servers that participate in DFS replication. When changes are made to DFS shared folders, all of the participating servers are automatically or manually synchronized so that they have the same copy.
  20. Server for Network Information Services
    A service that Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications (SUA) can add to Active Directory to make a Windows Server 2008 server a Network Information Services server for coordinating management of user accounts and groups between UNIX/Linux computers and Windows Server 2008 servers on the same network. See Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications.
  21. share permissions
    - Permissions that apply to a particular object that is shared over a network, such as a shared folder or printer.
  22. Shell
    - An interface between the user and the operating system.
  23. stand-alone DFS model
    - A DFS model in which no Active Directory implementation is available to help manage the shared folders. This model provides only a single or flat level share.
  24. Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications (SUA)
    - A subsystem that can be installed in Windows Server 2008 for using UNIX and Linux commands, applications, and scripts.
  25. system control ACL (SACL)
    - An access control list that contains settings to audit the access to an object, such as a folder.
  26. Universal Naming Convention (UNC)
    - A naming convention that designates network servers, computers, and shared resources. The format for a UNC name is, for example, \\servername\namespace\folder\fi le.
  27. bidirectional printing
    Ability of a parallel printer to conduct two-way communication between the printer and the computer, such as to provide out-of-paper information; also, bidirectional printing supports Plug and Play and enables an operating system to query a printer about its capabilities.
  28. data type
    Way in which information is formatted in a print fi le.
  29. enhanced metafile (EMF)
    A data type for printing used by Windows 95, 98, Me, NT, 2000, XP, Vista, 7, Server 2003, and Server 2008 operating systems. EMF print files offer a distinct advantage in Windows operating system environments because they are very portable from computer to computer.
  30. graphics device interface (GDI)
    An interface on a Windows network print client that works with a local software application, such as Microsoft Word, and a local printer driver to format a fi le to be sent to a local printer or a network print server.
  31. Internet Printing Protocol (IPP)
    A protocol that is encapsulated in HTTP and that is used to print files over the Internet.
  32. local print device
    A printer, such as a laser printer, physically attached to a port on the local computer.
  33. network print device
    A printing device, such as a laser printer, connected to a print server through a network.
  34. PostScript printer
    A printer that has special firmware or cartridges to print using a page description language (PDL).
  35. print client
    - Client computer or application that generates a print job.
  36. print job
    A document or items to be printed.
  37. print queue
    A stack or lineup of print jobs, with the first job submitted at the top of the stack and the last job submitted at the bottom, and all of the jobs waiting to be sent from the spooler to the printer.
  38. print server
    Network computer or server device that connects printers to the network for sharing and that receives and processes print requests from print clients.
  39. Printer Control Language (PCL)
    A printer language used by non-PostScript Hewlett-Packard and compatible laser printers.
  40. printer driver
    Contains the device-specific information that Windows Server 2008 requires to control a particular print device, implementing customized printer control codes, font, and style information so that documents are converted into a printer-specific language.
  41. printer pooling
    Linking two or more identical printers with one printer setup or printer share.
  42. RAW
    A data type often used for printing MS-DOS, Windows 3.x, and UNIX and Linux print fi les.
  43. spool file
    A print file written to disk until it can be transmitted to a printer.
  44. Spooler
    In the Windows environment, a group of DLLs, information fi les, and programs that process print jobs for printing.
  45. Spooling
    A process working in the background to enable several print fi les to go to a single printer. Each file is placed in temporary storage until its turn comes to be printed.
  46. TEXT
    A data type used for printing text files formatted using the ANSI standard that employs values between 0 and 255 to represent characters, numbers, and symbols.
  47. XML Paper Specification (XPS)
    An advanced way of printing documents for multiple purposes, including viewing electronic pages and printing pages in a polished format
  48. active partition
    The partition from which a computer boots.
  49. basic disk
    In Windows Server 2008, a partitioned disk that can have up to four partitions and that uses logical drive designations. This type of disk is compatible with MS-DOS, Windows 3.x, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Server 2008.
  50. boot partition
    Holds the Windows Server 2008 \Windows folder containing the system fi les.
  51. custom backup
    Enables you to configure backups differently for each volume, using either a full backup or an incremental backup.
  52. defragmenting
    A software process that rearranges data to fill in the empty spaces that develop on disks and makes data easier to obtain.
  53. Device Specific Module (DSM)
    A software interface between the Multipath I/O capability in Windows Server 2008 and the hard disk hardware.
  54. disk duplexing
    A fault-tolerance method similar to disk mirroring in that it prevents data loss by duplicating data from a main disk to a backup disk; but disk duplexing places the backup disk on a different controller or adapter than is used by the main disk.
  55. disk mirroring
    A fault-tolerance method that prevents data loss by duplicating data from a main disk to a backup disk. Some operating systems also refer to this as disk shadowing.
  56. dynamic disk
    In Windows Server 2008, a disk that does not use traditional partitioning, which means that there is no restriction to the number of volumes that can be set up on one disk or to the ability to extend volumes onto additional physical disks. Dynamic disks are only compatible with Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, and Windows 2000 Server platforms.
  57. extended partition
    A partition that is created from unpartitioned free disk space and is linked to a primary partition in order to increase the available disk space.
  58. fault tolerance
    Techniques that employ hardware and software to provide assurance against equipment failures, computer service interruptions, and data loss.
  59. Fibre Channel
    A subnetwork technology used primarily for SANs that enables gigabit high-speed data transfers. See Storage Area Network (SAN).
  60. Formatting
    A process that prepares a hard disk partition for a specific fi le system.
  61. Fragmented
    Having files spread throughout a disk with empty pockets of space between files; a normal and gradual process in the functioning of an operating system, addressed by using a defragmentation utility.
  62. full backup
    A backup of an entire system, including all system fi les, programs, and data fi les.
  63. Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) Partition Table or GPT
    A method for partitioning disks that allows for theoretically unlimited partitions and use of larger disks. In Windows Server 2008, the maximum number of partitions on a GPT disk is 128, and the maximum partition size is up to 18 exabytes.
  64. home directory or home folder
    A server folder that is associated with a user’s account and that is a designated workspace for the user to store fi les.
  65. incremental backup
    Backs up only fi les that are new or that have been updated.
  66. Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI)
    A high-speed technology used in SANs that employs TCP/IP communications and SCSI disk drives. See Storage Area Network (SAN).
  67. logical unit number (LUN)
    A number that identifies a physical SCSI drive or logical SCSI targets (which can be volumes, IP addresses, adapter ports, and other connections depending on the SAN technology). See Small Computer System Interface (SCSI).
  68. Master Boot Record (MBR)
    Data created in the first sector of a disk, containing startup information and information about disk partitions.
  69. mirrored volume
    Two dynamic disks that are set up for RAID level 1 so that data on one disk is stored on a redundant disk.
  70. mounted drive
    A physical disk, CD/DVD, removable drive, or other drive that appears as a folder and that is accessed through a path like any other folder.
  71. Multipath I/O
    A set of drivers in Windows Server 2008 that can be used with device and network architecture to set up multiple paths between a server and its disk storage to achieve fault tolerance.
  72. partition table
    Table containing information about each partition on a disk, such as the type of partition, size, and location. Also, the partition table provides information to the computer about how to access the disk.
  73. Partitioning
    Blocking a group of tracks and sectors to be used by a particular fi le system, such as NTFS.
  74. primary partition
    - Partition or portion of a hard disk that is bootable.
  75. RAID (redundant array of inexpensive [or independent] disks)
    A set of standards designed to extend the life of hard disk drives and to prevent data loss from a hard disk failure.
  76. RAID-5 volume
    Three or more dynamic disks that use RAID level 5 fault tolerance through disk striping and creating parity blocks for data recovery.
  77. simple volume
    A portion of a disk or an entire disk that is set up as a dynamic disk.
  78. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
    A 32- or 64-bit computer adapter that transports data between one or more attached devices, such as hard disks, and the computer.
  79. spanned volume
    Two or more Windows Server dynamic disks that are combined to appear as one disk.
  80. Storage Area Network (SAN)
    A grouping of storage devices that forms a subnet. The storage devices are available to any server on the main network and appear to the user as though they are attached to the server they are accessing.
  81. stripe set
    Two or more basic disks set up so that files are spread in blocks across the disks.
  82. striped volume
    Two or more dynamic disks that use striping so that fi les are spread in blocks across the disks.
  83. Striping
    A data storage method that breaks up data fi les across all volumes of a disk set to minimize wear on a single volume.
  84. system partition
    - Partition that contains boot fi les.
  85. Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI)
    A firmware alternative to BIOS that includes the use of GPT disks. See Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) Partition Table or GPT.
  86. Virtual Disk Service (VDS)
    Used to enable management of disk volumes in SANs through one interface at a server.
  87. Volume
    A logical designation of one or more physical disks partitioned and formatted with one file system. One volume can be composed of one or more partitions. In Windows Server 2008, a volume can be a basic disk partition that has been formatted for a particular file system, a primary partition, a volume set, an extended volume, a stripe set, a stripe set with parity, or a mirror set. A volume can also be a dynamic disk that is set up as a simple volume, spanned volume, striped volume, RAID-5 volume, or mirrored volume.
  88. volume set
    Two or more formatted basic disk partitions (volumes) that are combined to look like one volume with a single drive letter.
  89. Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS)
    Backup service used in Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008 to create stable images of files and folders on servers based on the point in time when the image is made.
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IS451m exam2 Vocab
vocabulary for is451mexam2
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