Chemical Process Industries

  1. Alkylation
    (Addition of alkyl radical with side chain final product)
    • Petroleum
    • Organic Chemicals
  2. Amination of Ammonolysis
    (Addition of NH3)
    • Dyestuff
    • Synthetic fibers
    • Organic Chemical
  3. Amination by Reduction
    (Add H2)
    • Dyestuff
    • Organic Chemicals

    Note: By Oxidation is the addition of O2
  4. Ammonoxidation
    (Add NH3 and O2)
    • Plastics
    • Synthetic fibers
  5. Calcination

    • CaCO3      ----> CaO + CO2
    • Limestone  heat
  6. Carbonylation
    (Add CO)
    Organic chemicals
  7. Caboxylation
    (Add CO2) with Pressure
    Organic chemicals
  8. Combustion
    • Process heating
    • A + O2 ---> CO2 + H2O
  9. Condensation
    (Remove H2O)
    Mostly for Aromatics
    Synthetic perfumes
  10. Cracking or Pyrolysis
    Destructive distillation of coal and Petroleum
  11. Cyanidation or Cyanation
    (Add HCN)
    Organic chemicals
  12. Cyclization
  13. Dehydration
    (Dec H2O)
    Organic Chemicals
  14. Dehydrogenation
    (Remove H2)
    Synthetic Rubbers
  15. Diazotization and Coupling
  16. Disproportionation
    Organic chemicals

    2A---> B + C
  17. Double Decomposition: Metathesis
    • Inorganic chemicals
    • Note: Compounds exchange ions
  18. Esterification
    • Oils and Fats
    • Soap
    • Organic Chemicals

    Note: Alcohol + Acid --> Ester + H2O
  19. Halogenation
    (Add X)
    Organic Chemicals
  20. Hydration
    (Add  H2O)
    Inorganic and Organic Chemicals
  21. Hydroformylation
    (Add H2 and CO)
    Organic Chemicals
  22. Hydrogenation
    (Add H2)
    Fats, Waxes, Coal, Petroleum
  23. Hydrolysis
    (Add H2O, Remove Substituent)
    Organic chemicals
  24. Hydroxylation
    (Add Alco)
  25. Isomerizarion
    (usually involve heat)
  26. Nitration
    (Add HNO3)
    Explosive and Dyestuffs
  27. Oligomeration
    • Organic Chemicals
    • Note: multiple change in structure
  28. Oxidation
    (Add O2)
    Organic Chemicals
  29. Polymerization
    a. Addition (combines monomers)
    b. Condesation (splits comp: H2O, NH3, CH2O, NaCl)
    Petroleum, Plastics, Elastomers, Synthetic fibers
  30. Reduction
    • Polymer catalysis
    • ex: 3TiCl4 + Al --> 3TiCl3 + AlCl3
  31. Sulfonation
    (Add H2SO4)
    • Dyestuffs
    • Surface active agents
  32. Thionation
    (Add S or H2S)
    Organic Chemicals
  33. Manifacture of paper from pulp employing the Foudrinier machine
    Kraft Process
  34. Method of recovering hydrogen from water gas; carbon monoxide is reacted with the steam at 500°C in the presence of catalyst to form CO and H2
    Bosch Process
  35. Recovering cooper from its sulfide ores by leaching with cupric and sodium or calcium chloride solution and electrolyzing the resulting cuprous chloride liquor cell with impure cooper anonde protected by diaphragms; the electrolytic by product, cupric chloride, is returned for further leaching
    Hoepener Process
  36. Cooper or iron sulfides fused and blown with air to burn out the sulfur content
    Holloway Process
  37. Formation of rust resistant coating on iron; base metal by oxidation with superheated steam
    Bariff Process
  38. Process for reduction of lead ores; small charge is roasted slowly at low temperature, the lead being collected outside the furnace by means of a heat
    Carinthian Process
  39. Method of recovering gold and silver from their ores into a soluble from by treatment with cyanides
    Cyanidation Process
  40. Rubber reclaiming process in vulcanized scraps are introduced into a mixer (Banbury) where in the presence of air it is worked under pressure and at high temperature for a very short time
    Babbyry Process
  41. Sulfonation and extraction process in the manufacture of phenol
    Dennis Bull Process
  42. Soda ash manufacture
    Solvay Process
  43. Production of ammonia by direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen at 600°C and under 200-300 atm in the presence of a catalyst
    Haber-Bosch Process
  44. Process of recovering sulfur from the buried porous cap rock of a salt dome and delivering it above ground as a product of suitable purity and condition for use
    Frasch Process
  45. Extraction of aluminum from bauxite
    Hall's Process
Card Set
Chemical Process Industries