one of the first female clerks in Washington, left her job to help out injured troops of the Civil War by volunteering and bringing food, bandages, and supplies to the wounded on the battle field. After war she was in charge of the search for missing union soldiers and in 1877 she founded and became president of the American Red Cross.
President of the Confederate States of America; a leading southern politician of the 1850s, he believed slavery essential to the South and held that it should expand into the territories without restriction. He served as U.S. senator from Mississippi (1847-1851, 1857-1861) and secretary of war (1853-1857) before becoming president of the Confederate States of America (1861-1865). After the war, he served two years in prison for his role in the rebellion.
First Battle of Bull Run
Battle near the creek Bull Run where union fighters led by McDowell were sent fleeing back to Washington from Johnstons confederate fighters and in the end was a Confederate victory. Also this battle in the long run did more harm than good to the South cus made them believe it would be easy to beat the North while the North came to the reality that the war was going to be a long and hard fought one.
General Irvin McDowell
Led the union volunteer troops and militia or “Grand Army”, thought that they were stronger than confederate so led a quick knockout blow to the Southern capital of Richmond. However troops only made it to Bull Run where they where encountered by General Johnstons confederate forces and sent union soldiers fleeing back to Washington.
General Thomas J. Jackson/ “Stonewall”
earned his name for the firm stand of his men in the First Battle of the Bull Run
General George B McClellan
With his ability to commanded the union forces in western Virginia he had saved for the Union the area that two years later became the actuall state of West Virginia.
Union warship stopped the British steamer Trent bound for England, two confederate diplomats (James Mason and John Slidell) were removed from the vessel. They were on their way to England and France to seek recognition of the Confederacy by them. Brits outraged felt that U.S. had violated freedom of the seas for neutral vessels, many called for war with the U.S. British troops were rushed to Canada, but Lincoln and SoS Seward recognized this danger and freed the two confederate diplomats allowing them back on their way. Lincoln realized that if another war came about with the British the union stood no chance against the South so he admitted that the U.S. had acted wrongly and ended the crisis.
General Ulysses S. Grant
Hero of the union led by his supreme common sense and strategy of “Find out where you enemy is. Get at him as soon as you can. Strike him hard as you can, and keep moving.” First victory was led in Tennesse where he used the Southern rivers to his advantage with the naval forces. Also he Captured Fort Henry, Fort Donelson and Shiloh.
wrote a letter to Grant stating “My only points of doubt were as to your knowledge of grand strategy, and of books of science and history; but i confess your common sense seems to have supplied this.” Perhaps because Grant was not a book soldier but a common sense one.
A battle at Shiloh church where Grants forces were suprised by Albert Johnstons experienced Confederate forces and were driven back to the edge of the river on the first day along with the loss of the confederate leader Johnstons’s life. The next day however Grant did not give up and attacked and drove back confederate troops from the field. Great number of losses on each side. Here Grant realized it would be a war of exhaustion and in order to win North would have to consume all of the South. (union victory)
Grant with the vital aid of a fleet of ironclad gunboats under Flag officer A.H. Foote captured Fort Henry and opened the Tennessee River all the way to Alabama.
Monitor and the Merrimac
The C.S.S. Virgina or U.S. frigate Merrimac came out of Norfolk into Hampton Roads to attack union blockading squadron there. Union Gun shots bounced of the sides of this ship and the U.S. frigate Merrimac defeated union fleet ships such as the Cumberland and Congress and then returned to Norfolk. The next day the Monitor ship (a union ship) steamed into Hampton Roads and later meeting with the unbeatable Merrimac sent it back to Norfolk. Ending the Southern reign over seas and of navies with wooden ships. (start of navies with ironclads)
A major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond by preventing the Confederate States Army in Northern Virginia.
Second Battle of Bull Run
John Pope took over and replaced General McClellan. But before Pope could march and take Richmond and “end the war” he was attacked by Lee and Jackson at Bull Run. There his trroops were defeated and Pope was spedily removed and his troops were placed again under the control of McClellan. These reverses stirred hatred against Lincoln and admin. and soon enlistments and amount of union war bonds bought dropped. North started to lose hope in winning.
On September 17, 1862, Generals Robert E. Lee and George McClellan faced off near Antietam creek in Sharpsburg, Maryland, in the the first battle of the American Civil War to be fought on northern soil. Though McClellan failed to utlilize his numerical superiority to crush Lee's army, he was able to check the Confederate advance into the north. After a string of Union defeats, this tactical victory provided Abraham Lincoln the political cover he needed to issue his Emancipation Proclamation. Though the result of the battle was inconclusive, it remains the bloodiest single day in American history, with more than 22,000 casualties.
An executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War under his war powers. It proclaimed the freedom of 3.1 million of the nation's 4 million slaves, and immediately freed 50,000 of them, with the rest freed as Union armies advanced.
General Ambrose Burnside
Had twice before been offered command of the Army of the Potomac, after the Peninsula and Second Bull Run Campaigns. Each time he had expressed that he did not feel competent to command such a large force. However, in early November, President Lincoln relieved McClellan and he reluctantly accepted the command. A month later he crossed his army to the south of the Rappahannock River but was defeated at the Battle of Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862. In January 1863, he attempted to launch another offensive campaign, known as the Mud March; poor weather conditions resulted in another failure. President Lincoln relieved him of command and transferred him to the Western Theater.
General "fighting" joe hooker
union leader in the east defeated by Lee in the battle of Chancellorsville in northeastern virginia
Self-proclaimed anti-slavery messiahLed a mob including his 4 sons into the proslavery settlement on Pottawatomie Creek and murdered 5 men with broadswordsRetaliation for the destruction of LawranceLater led invasion of the South and armed the slaves to fight for freedom
Battle of Gettysburg
- Robert E. Lee vs George Gordon Meade
- 165.000 men fought, 50,000+ died
- South had advantage, but didn't strike fast enough
- South sent for reinforcements, but they were not enough
- North victory
- General Pemberton vs General Grant
- North victory
- Gained control of Mississippi River
- Philip Sheridan led march in Shenandoah Valley
- Aimed to break spirit of civilian South
- Burned mills, barns, etc
- Told men to leave them "nothing but their eyes to weep with"
"March to the Sea"
- Sherman abandoned supply lines after burning Atlanta
- Led 25 day march to Savannah
- Travelled lightly, looted when they needed supplies
- Cut path of destruction 300 miles long, 60 miles wide
- Robert E. Lee's surrender to Grant
- Respectful and calm
- Grant was generous with terms of surrender
Wade Davis Plan
- Lincoln's plan for reunion did not satisfy Republicans- Wanted to require a majority of white males in the state's approval instead of 1/10
- Each southern state needed a new constitution
- No one could vote unless they took ironclad oath promising past and future loyalty
- Impossible for a southern state to do this for years
- Passed through Congress, but Lincoln didn't sign
- Offered choice between this and his plan
John Wilkes Booth
- Confederate patriot and successful actor
- Assassinated Lincoln in Ford's Theater
- Caught and killed, but rumored to be still alive afterward
Proclamation of Amnesty
- Lincoln's original plan for reunion
- Granted pardon to almost all southerners
- 1/10 of voters take oath to support constitution and abolish slavery
- Slaves were free, but codes strictly limited freedom
- Could not vote, marry whites, could only be witnesses in trial involving other blacks
- Limited to agricultural/service jobs
- Fine for vagrancy (wandering without a job)
- Radical Republican leader in House of Representatives
- Humanitarian without humanity
- Hated all slave owners passionately
Joint Committee of Fifteen
- Johnson was to continue lenient reunion policies
- Congress opposed, created a joint committee to keep South out of Congress
- Led by Thaddeus Stevens
- Extended by Joint Committee of Fifteen
- Rebuilt south after war
- Handed out free meals to black and white refugees
- Built hospitals, schools, colleges
- Johnson would not sign because it would recognize power of Joint Committee
Civil Rights Bills
- Allowed federal government to interfere with states' affairs to protect civil rights
- Johnson failed to pass because of Democratic states' rights ideals
- Angered both moderate and radical Republicans
- Overrode Johnson's vetoes of this and Freedmen's bureau
Tenure of Office
- President could not dismiss any public official without consent of Senate
- Johnson thought it was unconstitutional, tried to dismiss his Secretary of War, Stanton, his political enemy
- Gave Radicals chance to try to impeach Johnson
- Process for removing the president if he was convicted of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors
- House of Representatives must impeach first, then president is tried by Senate, which must reach a 2/3 majority
- Congress tried to impeach Johnson, but was one Senate vote short
- New popular and cheap form of luggage made form scraps of used carpets
- Used by everyone, was an easy way to spot travelers
- A scalawag was a white Southerner who joined the Republican party during the Reconstruction period. Scalawags were considered traitors to the Southern cause and were condemned by Southern Democrats. The term scalawag was applied both to entrepreneurs who supported Republican economic policies and Whig planters who had opposed secession.
- a term for a southern white in the post-civil war era the supported reconstruction.
- local whites in the South who had resettled there and supported or entered Reconstruction governments; were ex-Whigs seeking to reenter politics; their beliefs accorded with the policies of congressional Reconstruction
- Carpetbaggers were Northerners who went to the South during Reconstruction. They carried their belongings in carpetbags, and most intended to settle in the South and make money there.The African-American vote won them important posts in Republican state governments.
- northerners who were the opponents to the scalawags; were well-educated, middle-class professionals; many were former Union soldiers attracted by the South's climate and cheap land
(1823–78) US politician; known as Boss Tweed. As a New York City official and a state senator 1867–71, he became the leader of Tammany Hall, the executive committee of New York City’s Democratic Party and a ring of political corruption, that swindled the state treasury out of as much as $200 million. Convicted in 1873, he fled to Cuba and then Spain, but was extradited in 1876 and returned to a New York jail, where he died.
Klu Klux Klan
- a hate group in the US that works to protect the rights of white Americans by terrorism, violence, and lynching.
- The KKK was an organization formed by ex-Confederates and led by Nathan B. Forrest. It was founded in the South in 1866 in opposition to Reconstruction. Members used disguises, rituals, whippings and lynchings, to terrorize African-Americans and their supporters. Forrest disbanded the Klan in 1869.
- "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."
- Formally abolishing slavery in the United States
- the 13th Amendment was passed by the Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified by the states on December 6, 1865.
- granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
- Although ratified on February 3, 1870, the promise of the 15th Amendment would not be fully realized for almost a century. Through the use of poll taxes, literacy tests and other means, Southern states were able to effectively disenfranchise African Americans. It would take the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote.
Credit Mobllier scandal
the 1867-1868 scandal in which Union Pacific executives formed their own railroad construction company, then hired and overpaid themselves to build their own railroad
- The effect of the Act was, the day before the second-term inauguration of President Ulysses S. Grant, to double the salary of the President (to $50,000) and the salaries of Supreme Court Justices
- In the Salary Grab Act of 1873, Congress voted a 100% pay raise and a 50% increase for itself
- The public was shocked, leading to a Democratic victory in the next congressional election. The act was later repealed
- it was another example of the corruption of the postwar government.
The Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868. It said that no state can make or enforce any law which "deprives any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law." Also, states could not "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
Panic of 1873
- caused by too many railroads and factories being formed than existing markets could bear and the over-loaning by banks to those projects; main causes, over-speculation and too much credit
- Transforming the northern economy, the Panic of 1873 triggered a five-year depression. Banks closed, farm prices plummeted,steel furnaces stood idle, and one out of four railroads failed. However, once the depression began, demand rose. This issue divided both major parties and was compounded by the repayment of federal debt.
Compromise of 1877
- Immediately after the presidential election of 1876, it became clear that the outcome of the race hinged largely on disputed returns from Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina--the only three states in the South with Reconstruction-era Republican governments still in power. As a bipartisan congressional commission debated over the outcome early in 1877, allies of the Republican Party candidate Rutherford Hayes met in secret with moderate southern Democrats in order to negotiate acceptance of Hayes' election. The Democrats agreed not to block Hayes' victory on the condition that Republicans withdraw all federal troops from the South, thus consolidating Democratic control over the region. As a result of the so-called Compromise of 1877 (or Compromise of 1876), Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina became Democratic once again, effectively marking the end of the Reconstruction era.
- Agreed on :FEDERAL TROOPS LEAVE SOUTH,ONE SOUTHERNER WOULD GET A POST IN HIS CABINET, HAYES WOULD GIVE CONSERVATIVE SOUTHERN DEMOCRATS CONTROL OF PART OF THE LOCAL PATRONAGE, SUPPORT GENERAL SPENDING FOR INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT IN THE SOUTH
Jim Crow Laws
- The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
- laws which promoted segregation, or the separation of people based on race. These laws worked primarily to restricted the rights of African Americans to use certain schools and public facilities, usually the good ones; to vote; find decent employment and associate with anyone of their own choosing. These laws did not make life "separate but equal," but only served to exclude African Americans and others from exercising their rights as American citizens. In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), the US Supreme Court ruled that Jim Crow laws were unconstitutional. It took many years and much effort, however, before Jim Crow laws would be overturned across the country.
Plessy v Ferguson
- Supreme Court case about Jim Crow railroad cars in Louisiana; the Court decided by 7 to 1 that legislation could not overcome racial attitudes, and that it was constitutional to have "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites.
- supreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilities were equal
Separate but equal
segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilities were equal
Personal liberty laws
Personal Liberty Laws forbade the imprisonment of runaway salves and guaranteed that they would have jury trials (Nine northern states passed this)
William Loyd Garrison
most conspicious and most vilified of the abolitionists, published "The Liberator" in Boston, helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society; favored Northern secession and renounced politics
Anti- Slavery society
- an abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Frederick Douglass was a key leader of the society and often spoke at its meetings
- An abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists that called for the destruction of slavery, not gradual emancipation or colonization.
Angela and Sarah Grimke
- Abolitionists and suffragettes. The sisters came from South Carolina in a aristocratic family, with an Episcopalian judge who owned slaves father. Both sisters became abolitionists, and after converting to the Quaker faith, they joined Society of Friends. In 1835
- Angela wrote an anti-slavery letter to Abolitionist leader William Lloyd Garrison, who published it in, The Liberator. They spoke at abolitionist meetings.
- In 1837, Angelina was invited to be the first woman to speak at the Massachusetts State Legislature. Sarah and Angelina Grimke wrote Letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes (1837) - objecting to male opposition to their anti-slavery activities.
- Slave from VA that led group of slaves to kill their slaves holders abd familes. Turner caught and executed on Nov.11, 1831. Slave states stricker control on slave population.
- lead a ban of rebels plantation to plantation slaughtering countless whites; eventually caught and hanged; resulted in legal codes against black education, rules, and regulation
- wanted to democratize the South, establish public education, and ensure the rights or free people; strongly promoted free blacks and black suffrage
- the congressional republicans who wanted to destroy the political power of slaveholders and to give African Americans citizenship and the right to vote
anti-slavery Whig who was dominant in the formation of the republican party
Term for the mini-civil war occurring in Kansas 1855 to 1858, coined by the New York Tribune. The Kansas-Nebraska act had created rival govts (proslavery and. antislavery) Proslavery missouri supporters would cross the border to vote for slavery. Several armed attacks broke out. In 1861, Kansas finally admitted as a free state.
Xenophobic, anti Catholic political organization emerging between 1852-1856. Also known as the American Party or nativists - promote exclusion of Catholics and foreigners. “I know nothing” - when asked about their organization
Emerging in 1855, united anti Kansas/Nebraska men (opposition to slavery expansion) Took elements from Know Nothings, Free Soil, and anti-nebraska democrats and brought them together. High tariff policies and advocacy of Homestead Act appealed to North and West.
Creator of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, as well as resurrected the Compromise of 1850 and passed it in pieces of legislation through Congress. “The Little Giant”
Introduced by Stephen Douglas, passed in 1854. Allowed Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether or not to allow slavery in their borders for themselves - popular sovereignty. Infuriated many in the North, believed it violated the Missouri Compromise (non-intervention in territories) South supports (self determination)
Declaration that stated U.S. had the right to seize Cuba if Spain did not sell it to them. Northerners saw it as a plot by Southerners to expand slavery - used by newly formed Republicans to recruit more supporters (declared in Ostend, Belgium)
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe that exposed the brutality and injustice of slavery, inspired by the passage of fugitive slave laws & was published in 1852
a famous conductor on the underground railroad that first escaped to her own freedom, then made 19 trips back to free over 300 more slaves
In reference to the path that over 50,000 slaves used to escape bondage. The slaves made stops hiding in homes or businesses (known as “stations”) of anti slavery supporters (known as “station masters”) and the slaves were led by a “conductor” along the path (one of the most famous conductors being Harriett Tubman)
Replaced Zachary Taylor as President after he died and signed the legislations of the Compromise of 1850. Also nominated by the Know Nothing party in the election of 1856.
Compromise of 1850
Introduced by Henry Clay, resurrected by Stephen Douglas and passed it as separate legislation. Signed by Fillmore after death of Taylor. Five Parts: 1. California be admitted as a free state 2. New Mexico & Utah - popular sovereignty 3. Slave trade abolished in D.C. 4. Texas Boundary cut down by half and Texas debt assumed by federal govt 5. Strong fugitive slave law enacted
Personal Liberty Laws
Forbid state officials and private citizens from assisting federal courts in enforcing the fugitive slave act. Also tried to guarantee protection and a fair trial for runaways
Anti slavery Northerners sent Free Soil emigrants to Kansas. Herny Ward Beecher, a minister, suggested that they were supplied with rifles (therefore “Beecher’s Bibles”)
“7th of March Speech” - the nation’s most famous orator gave a speech on March 7th, 1850 favoring Henry Clay’s 1850 Compromise (even though he was opposed to extension of slavery) in order to save the Union. Many of his supporters turned against him for this.
Fugitive Slave Law 1850
Protects the right of owners to recapture slaves who had escaped to the North