AGR 282 Lecture Midterm

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  1. Levels of organization of the body (Least to most complex)
    Cells, Tissues, Organs, Systems
  2. Epidermis cell that is associated with nerve cells and aids in sensation
    Merkel Cells
  3. Cell of the epidermis that stimulates the immune system
    Langerhans Cells
  4. Globular proteins that span the entire width of the cell membrane and may form pores
    Integral proteins
  5. Globular Proteins bound to inside or outside surfaces of the cell membrane
    Peripheral proteins
  6. Membrane receptor proteins
    Act as binding site on cell surface, important for signaling
  7. Cell membrane
    • Is NONPOLAR 
    • nonpolar elements cross easily
  8. Anatomy
    Study of structure of the body
  9. Physiology
    Study of function of the body
  10. Homeostasis Examples in the body
    • Blood pressure
    • Fluids
    • Oxygen levels
    • glucose levels 
    • Acid-base balance 
    • hormones 
    • body temp
  11. Functions of the integumentary system
    • Prevent desiccation 
    • reduce threat of injury
    • Maintain body temp
    • excreates (sweat, water, salt)
    • sensory organ
  12. Cilia and flagella
    extensions of plasma membrane that project into extracellular space
  13. Cilia
    • Shorter
    • occur in greater amounts
    • propel fluid, mucus, bacteria, etc away from the body
  14. Flagella
    • Usually occur singularly 
    • Propel the cell itself 
    • longer
  15. Phospholipid Bilayer
    • Phosphate group on outside (hydrophilic)
    • Lipid layer toward the inside (hydrophobic)
  16. Purpose of nervous tissue
    Receive and transmit impulses throughout the body
  17. Function of melanocytes
    Provide protection to keratinocytes from UV rays by producing melanin
  18. Functions of epithelial tissues
    • Filters Biochemical 
    • Covers and lines the body 
    • absorb nutrients
    • produce excretions and secretions
  19. Organelle: Golgi apparatus
    Modifies, packages, and distributes newly synthesized proteins
  20. Lysosome
    Digests intercellular debris
  21. Mitochondrion
    • Produces energy
    • responsible for cellular respiration
  22. Nucleus
    Control cellular activities
  23. Rough ER
    Produces proteins to be used extracellularly
  24. Smooth ER
    Synthesizes and stores lipids
  25. Adipose Connective tissue
    • Functions as energy storage, shock absorption, and thermal insulator
    • Predominately composed of adipocytes
  26. Areolar Connective Tissue
    • Most common type of connective tissue
    • Supports and cushions organs
  27. Dense Regular Connective Tissue
    Tendons and ligaments are composed of this connective tissue
  28. Elastic connective tissue
    Provides support in areas that need felxibility such as for between the vertebrae and in the bladder
  29. Dynamic Equilibrium in Homeostasis
    Work, energy to remain at a balance
  30. Single Celled Organisms
    Can survive on own because it does the jpb for that organism
  31. Multicelled Organism
    Cells are more specialized and only perform a certain function
  32. Sebaceous Gland
    Produces Sebum
  33. Tail Gland
    Aids in individual Recognition
  34. Anal Gland
    Individual Recognition (coat feces)
  35. Sweat Gland
    • Cools the body 
    • Produces sweat
  36. Keratinocytes
    Cells along the basement membrane of the epidermis that divide and produce keratin
  37. Melanocytes
    Cells along the basement membrane that produce melanin
  38. Osteocytes
    bone cells that are relatively inactive
  39. Chondroblasts
    Cells that produce or create cartilage
  40. Osteoclast
    Cells that destroy or break down bone
  41. Matrix
    A hard intercellular substance of collogen and minerals
  42. Ossification
    Process of hardening bone
  43. What determines Hair color
    quantity of melanin produced at the base of the hair bulb
  44. Functions of Claws
    • Traction
    • Defense Mechanism
  45. Functions of Bone
    • Protection to organs 
    • Provide support 
    • Leverage (how body moves) 
    • Storage (calcium)
    • Blood cell formation
  46. Osteoblasts
    Cells that create bone and therefore make the bone matrix, which is made up of minerals , collagen fibers, and proteogycan. the organelles inside osteoblasts have many ribosomes, rough ER, and goldi appartus because they modify and produce proteins that will be useful out side of the cell and become ostocytes
  47. Haversain Canal
    Contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves
  48. Canaliculi
    Tiny channels through bone that allows osteocytes to contact each other and exchange nutrients and wastes
  49. Volkmans Canal
    Channels that run at right angles to peristum and haversian canal
  50. Osteocyte
    Surrounded by bone matrix
  51. Osteon
    Layers of bone tissue (bone matrix and cells)
  52. Purpose of Foramina (foramens) in body
    • Foramen is hole in the bone 
    • Purpose is to allow nerves, blood vessels and lymph vessels through the bone
  53. Examples and functions of Foramens
    • Pelvic Foramen or Obturator - has two holes to to make that region lighter 
    • Vertebaral Foramen - houses spinal cord 
    • Magnum Foramen - In the occipital bone which allows spinal cord to enter skull
  54. Agonist or Prime Mover
    Muscle or muscle group that directly produces a desired action
  55. Antagonist
    Muscle or muscle group that directly opposes the action
  56. Synergist
    Muscle that contacts at the same time as a prime mover and assists in the same action of a prime mover
  57. Fixator
    Muscle that stablizes joints to allow other movements to take place
  58. Sarcomere
    Contractile unit of myofibrial
  59. Troponin
    Protein present on actin filament that acts as a receptor for calcium
  60. tropomyosin
    Protein present on actin that block cross bridge binding sites (when calcium is low), thereby preventing muscle contraction
  61. Cross Bridge formation
    Cross bridges present on mypsin can bind to coss bridge sites on actin
  62. Muscle contraction
    Shortening of multiple sarcomeres
  63. Muscle relaxation
    The lengthening f multiple sarcomeres
  64. Origin of MUscle
    Muscle attachement site that are more stable when muscle contacts
  65. Insertion of MUscle
    Muscle attachment site that is more flexible when muscle contracts
  66. 3 Circulatory Systems
    • Systemic 
    • Pulmonary 
    • Coronary
  67. Systemic Circulation
    • Provides blood flow to and away from body tissues 
    • Delivers oxygenated blood to body tissues 
    • Delivers deoxygenated blood to heart
  68. Pulmonary Circulation
    Delivers unoxygenated blood to the lungs and oxygenated to the left side of the heart
  69. Coronary Circulation
    Circulatory system within heart
  70. Arteries
    Carry blood away from the heart
  71. Veins
    Carry blood toward the heart
  72. Aorta
    • Largest artery in body
    • originates from left ventricle
  73. Arteries
    • Branches of the aorta 
    • 2nd largest
  74. Arterioles
    Branches of arteries
  75. Capillaries
    • Microvessels, connect arterioles to 
    • 1 cell thick, allows gasses and nutrients to pass into tissue easily
  76. Venueles
    Branches of vein
  77. Veins
    Branches of vena cavae
  78. Vena Cava
    • Largest veins in body 
    • 2 Vena Cavae 
    • Empty into right atrium
  79. 2 Vena Cavae
    • Cranial vena cavae 
    • Caudal vena cavae
  80. 4 internal chambers of heart
    • Right Atrium
    • Right Ventricle 
    • Left Atrium
    • Left Ventricle
  81. Right Atrium
    Receive deoxygenated blood from vena cavae
  82. Right Ventricle
    Pump deoxygenated blood into pulmonary circulation
  83. Left Atrium
    Receives oxygenated blood from pulmonary circulation
  84. Left Ventricle
    Pumps oxygenated blood into aorta
  85. Blood Flow Pathway
    • Rt atrium 
    • Right ventricle 
    • Pulmonary artery
    • Pulmonary arterioles 
    • Pulmonary capillaries 
    • Pulmonary venules 
    • Pulmonary veins 
    • Left atrium 
    • Left ventricle 
    • Aorta 
    • Arteries 
    • Arterioles 
    • Capillaries 
    • Venules 
    • Veins 
    • Vena Cavae
  86. 4 Valves of Heart
    • Right atrioventricular valve 
    • Pulmonary Valve 
    • Left atrioventricular valve 
    • Aortic Valve
  87. Right atrioventricular valve
    • between right atrium and right ventricle 
    • AKA right A-V valve and tricuspid valve
  88. Pulmonary Valve
    Between Right ventricle and pulmonary artery
  89. Aortic valve
    between left ventricle and aorta
  90. Left atrioventricular valve
    between left atrium and left ventricle
  91. Cardiac Cycle
    Complete contraction and relaxation of the heart
  92. Systole
    Part of cardiac cycle associated with contraction of atria and ventricles and ejection of blood into arterial system
  93. Diastole
    Part of cardiac cycle associated with relaxation of atria and ventricles and filling of chambers with blood
Card Set
AGR 282 Lecture Midterm
Also includes some Cardiac
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