animphys Ch 9 Glands and hormones

  1. affect the secreting cell itself. ie. autoinhibition of norepinephrine release from adrenergic
    autocrine secretions
  2. affects neightboring, ie. inflammatory response
    paracrine secretions
  3. released into the bloodstream and act on distant target tissues
    Endocrine secretions
  4. released onto the surface of the body, including the surface of the gut and other internalized surfaces
    exocrine secretions
  5. produced by one animals to communicate with another and can initiate a range of physiological responses
  6. calcitonin
    • both an autocrine and paracrine secretion
    • decreases Ca++,Mg++ and PO4 citrate in blood
    • inhbits osteoclasts
    • decreases absorbtion of CA++ n gut
    • increases extretion of CA++
  7. all animals secrete a cell coat called
  8. thick, slimy fluid composed of water, inorganic saltsm and mucin
  9. fibrous protein found in the extracellular matrix and is the most abundant animal protein
  10. apical portion of the cell sloughs off and the cell then reseals
    apocrine secretion
  11. the apical portion of the cell pinches off, and breaks open in the lumen of the gland
    merocine secretion
  12. entire cell is cast off and breaks up ot release its content, occurs in some insect and molluscan exocrine tissues
    holocrine secretion
  13. organs that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system and modulate body processes; thyroid gland,secretions called hormones
    endocrine glands
  14. secrete fluids through a duct onto the epithelial surface of the body;sweat glands
    exocrine glands
  15. hormones properties
    synthesized by specific tissues or glands

    secreted into the bloodstream, which carries them to their sites of action

    change the activities of target tissues or organs
  16. amino acids; example of all pituitary hormones
    peptides, proteins and glycoproteins
  17. derived from cholesterol; produced by various glands
  18. modified amino acids
    amines ie. thyroxin
  19. produced by the metabolism of arachidonicacid
  20. secretion of hormones from some endocrine tissues is regulated by
  21. neurohormones are produced by specialized neurons called
    neurosecretory cells
  22. neurosecretory cells are similar to neurons except
    secretory vesicles are 100-400 nm in diameter, ordinary are 30-60 nm. normal neurons use both fast and slow axonal transport neurosecretory use only fast.
  23. stain orange or red with acid dyes, secrete growth hormone and prolactin
  24. stain blue with basic dyes, secrete ACTH, thyroid-stimulating hormone
  25. thyroid hormones affect the development and maturation of various mammalian vertebrate only when
    synergistic actions in the presence of growth hormones
  26. associated with a loss of pancreatic Beta0 cell mass, leads to diminished or decreased insulin production and secretion
    type I diabetes mellitus
  27. associated with defective signal reception in the insulin pathways, leads to hyperglycemia and glycosuria
    type II diabetes mellitus
  28. Growth hormone inhibiting GIH
  29. growth hormones counter acts
  30. insulin counteracts
  31. symptoms of diabetes
    • excessive thirst
    • excessive urination
    • feeling very hungry
    • losing weight without trying
    • dry, itchy skin
    • losing feeling in feet or tingling in feet
    • blurry eyesight
  32. cholesterol is first converted to progesterone then transformed into
  33. estrogens most potent
    estradiol-17 beta
  34. the production and secretion of the steroid sex hormones are promoted by
    FSH follicle-stimulating hormone and LH leuteinizing hormone
  35. follicular phase
    begins with the release of FSH, stimulates development of 15-20 ovarian follicles
  36. luteal phase
    begins with ovulation. estrogen secretion declines and LH tranforms the ruptured follicle into a temp endocrine tissue; corpus luteum
  37. 2nd messengers
    cAMP, Ca++,CGMP,IP3,DG
  38. vesicles
    100-400 nm in diameter
  39. 1 molecule of glucagon can release
    10,000 glucose molecules
  40. piuitary glands
    • GH
    • ACTH
    • FSH female
    • FSH male
    • LH
    • prolactin
    • ICSH
    • TSH
  41. tropic
    act on other endocrine tissues
Card Set
animphys Ch 9 Glands and hormones