Geog 112: Lec 2

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  1. Ethiopian Realm
    • -SubSaharan Africa/Sahara Desert
    • -starts where the green starts (satellite image)
    • -consider it a giant island:ocean and dessert is a barrier
    • -animals started in africa and moved to south america, then to north america
  2. Middle Pilocene
    • -major movement of small animals; rodents
    • -easy to move because offspring have greater chance of survival
    • -6 million yrs ago
    • 1. Grassland
    • 2. Forest: 
    • -grassland creatures isolatd
  3. Porcupine
    • -originated in Africa
    • -find it in south america
  4. Cradle of Humanity
    Olduvai Gorge
  5. Mount kilimanjaro
    • -Tanzania
    • -has glaciers
  6. Great rift valley
    • -longest earthquake fault
    • -topography can change anytime, also animals
  7. Lake Victoria
    -2nd largest freshwater lake
  8. Congo Basin
    -2nd highest concentration of rainforest
  9. Great savannahs
    -most animals are here
  10. why is megafauna only in africa?
    • -humans eradicated them from rest of the world.
    • - Change in climate. After last ice age 86% of megafauna went extinct.
    • -No body really knows true reason, both theories apply to Africa as well so why haven't the megafauna died off?
  11. Mega Fauna
    • -Large animal of a family
    • -Africa held onto its Mega Fauna
    • -more mega fauna found here than anywhere else in the world
    • -85% of large mammals went extinct
    • -35% in North America
  12. Even toed grazers are true
  13. Biodiversity Hotspots
    • -lots of biodiversity, endemic species
    • -in peril by human activity
  14. Eastern Afromontane
    • -cradle of humanity 
    • -mountain ranges
    • -similar plant and animals across region
    • -geographically different
    • -Great Rift valley
    • -Glaciers(high) to wetlands(low)
    • -original extent was over 1 million km2 now only 100,000km2
  15. Endemic Birds: Flamingos
    • -more found in the rift
    • -Remarkable adaptation to African lakes, which are volcanic/soda lakes(FULL OF SODIUM BICARBONATE).
    • -Lake Nacaru
    • -Lakes are very hot & toxic, flamingos fly over water and determine if it's safe to land.
    • -feed on algae, keeps lake in check
    • -They need fresh water nearby to wash out sodium bicarbonate from feather so it doesn't solidify.
    • -also found in South America
  16. Ethiopian Wolf
    • -top predator in the ecosystem
    • -most endangered dog in the world
    • -fewer than 400 adults
    • -bad rep: killed because thought of predatory livestock
    • -eats small gazelles not cattle
    • -diseases from other domestic dogs (dis temper)
  17. Charismatic species
    • -appealing to humans
    • -reminds them of pets
    • -Ex. Lion, tiger
  18. Flagship species
    • -animal that promotes your cause
    • -attracts to conservation efforts
    • -Ex. WWF Panda
  19. Umbrella species
    • -gives benefits to other animals in ecosystem 
    • -protecting this species, could protect others as well
    • Ex. Sea otter
  20. Mountain Gorillas
    • -Never successfully raised in captivity 
    • -thick and dark fur because of cold environment
  21. Lowland gorillas
    • -see in zoos
    • -roughly 100,000
    • -shorter, softer hair
    • -brow ridge muscles for chewing
    • -toe alignment for movement
  22. New World vs Old World Primates
    New World Monkeys have prehensile tails
  23. Ape vs Monkey
    -Ape has no tail
  24. Elephant shrew
    • -labeled as insectivores, rabbit, primate, ungulate
    • -originally from Eurasia
    • -inhabit a wide variety of habitats
    • -living fossil:unchanged
    • -endangered
  25. Aardvark
    • -living fossil
    • -eats ants and termites
    • -digs hole for food
    • -provides shelter for other animals
    • -aerate the soil
  26. Termite mound
    • -can be 100ft in a single km 
    • -can be very tall
  27. Pangolin
    • -very similar to armadillo
    • -keratin scales
    • -perfect gift to government officials for showing respect
    • -can travel up to 20km
  28. Golden mole
    • -no eyes
    • -tiny limbs
    • -powerful shoulders
    • -webbed feet
    • -regulate body temperature 
    • -lowers metabolism
    • -senses vibrations/hearing
    • -efficient kidneys, dont need water
  29. Nile Crocodile
    • -very large
    • -Brain and heart are more advanced than any other reptile
    • -high walk
    • -swim with tails
    • -adult male can be 2,200 pounds
    • -1940s-60s were hunted to almost extinction
    • -kill about 200-300 people per year
  30. Crocodile vs Alligator
    Croc as A snout and Alli has C snout
  31. Deadly Snakes
    • 1. Viper
    • 2. Puff adder
    • -most human fatalities
    • 3. Cape Cobra
    • -easily frightened
    • 4. Black mamba
    • -2nd largest venomous snake in the world
  32. Tsetse Fly
    • -bite
    • -huge problem in Africa
    • -causes sleeping sickness
  33. Rain Frog
    • -frog in dessert burrows
    • -can't hop 
    • -lick up insects
    • -no tadpoles, instead have yolk eggs that grow in burrow instead of water
    • -only 2 inches long
    • -defense:puffs up like a powder donut, secrete toxic ooze and taste nasty
  34. African Bullfrog
    • -get up to 4 and 1/2 pounds
    • -live in both moist and dry desert
    • -carnivores
    • -kill off lots of endemic species when invasive
  35. Giant African Land Snail
    • -2nd most invasive species in the world
    • -can be almost 8inches long
    • -produce 1,200 eggs per year
    • -has both sexual organs
  36. Giraffe
    • -Fur has built in antibiotic and parasite repellent
    • -2 aromatic chemicals in fur
    • -elongated vertebrae, 7ft long neck
    • -necking with other males
  37. Hippotamus
    • -has to be kept wet
    • -can't stay out of water for long
    • -ooze a red substance (protective coating)
    • -warning:open large jaws, sound
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Geog 112: Lec 2
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