1. voided sample
    collected when animal urinates, best to collect mid-stream to minimize genital contamination
  2. express bladder urine collection
    • manual compression of bladder, mid-stream best.  
    • Take care not to injure animal
  3. catheterization
    • insert sterile catheter into bladder via urethra.  Syringe is attached to catheter, urine aspirated out.  
    • Initial should be discarded due to urethral contamination from insertion of catheter
  4. cystocentesis
    • best method for urine culture.  
    • insert needle with syringe into bladder, aspirate into syringe.
  5. Refrigeration of sample
    • Must record conditions of sample--if can't be tested immediately, refrigerate for up to 8 hours.  
    • refrigeration can cause increase in crystal formation, bacterial growth and degeneration of casts (bacteria cause more alkaline pH).  
    • Bring sample to room temp before testing.
  6. Examination of urine
    • observe color, turbidity and odor.  Record.  
    • Use reagent strips (Multistix).  Check expiration and know directions first.  Specific gravity is not accurate, cats can get false Leukocyte positives.
  7. Specific gravity
    • perform with refractometer, not accurate on strip.  
    • Lots of suspended particles, spin first and read after.
  8. Urine sediment
    • can be diagnostic, so do it right.
    • Put urine in tube, spin slowly for 6 minutes.  Pour off supernatant.  Stain with SEDISTAIN or VOLU-SOL.  
    • place cover slip over one drop.  Scan at low power, go up to 400 on anything interesting.  USE A REFERENCE
  9. Things seen in urine sediment
    • epithelial cells: squamous, transitional, renal
    • crystals: triple phosphate, calcium oxalate, uric acid
    • casts: hyaline, granular (coarse or fine), WBC, RBC, epithelial, waxy or mixed
    • Bacteria
    • debris
    • mucous strands
    • sperm
  10. Why urine is yellow
    urochrome pigments.  Degree depends on concentration.
  11. Flocculent
    • turbid, particles suspended on it.  
    • Place against letter print background, try to read.
  12. Cloudy urine comes from
    • RBC, WBC, epithelial cells, casts, crystals, mucous, fat, bacteria or contamination of sample.  
    • Horses usually have cloudy urine, often due to mucous (mucous glands in renal pelvis and ureter)
  13. Horse urine
    normally cloudy due to mucous
  14. rabbit urine
    milky appearance is normal.
  15. Before starting urinalysis
    • let urine come to room temp
    • MIX
  16. crystalluria
    presence of crystals in urine.  May or may not be significant.
  17. Types of crystals can be due to
    • urine pH, concentration and temperature, and solubility of elements.  
    • Some are normal, may not be diagnostically or clinically significant.
  18. Specific gravity
    • Take into account history etc.  
    • decrease in kidney disease or increased fluid intake
    • increase in increased fluid loss or decreased intake (sweating, panting, diarrhea, vomiting)
  19. pH of urine
    • samples left at room temp become more alkaline from loss of CO2.  
    • Depends largely on diet in healthy animals
    • Bacteria increases pH
  20. Bacteria in urine causes what changes
    ammonium smell, increased pH, degeneration of casts and cells.
  21. protein test
    • reagent strips usu detect albumin.  
    • False-positive results in alkaline urine depending on diet, UTI or urine retention
    • Transient proteinuria from muscle exertion, emotional stress, convulsions, after parturition and in neonates.
  22. Glucose test
    • glucosuria or glycouria.
    • Only glucose on reagent strips, tablets can be better, detect all sugars
    • false-positive due to drugs
    • (epinephrine release, post high-carb meal, IV admin of glucose or post-anesthesia can cause)
  23. Ketones
    • formed in incomplete catabolism of fatty acids.  Causes a fruity smell.  
    • Often seen in diabetes mellitus
  24. Ketoacidosis
    • Acidosis caused by ketones.  
    • ketones can cause CNS depression and acidosis.
  25. ketonemia with ketonuria
    caused by high fat diets, starvation, fasting, long-term anorexia and imparied liver function.
  26. Bilirubin
    • Only conjugated bilirubin in urine
    • normal dogs have some, CATS DO NOT (nor do pigs, sheep, horses)
    • Broken down by short-wave light, keep it in the dark or false-negative
  27. leukocytes
    false positives in cats, lots of false negatives.  Must examine sediment.
  28. sediment
    casts.  Cats with renal disease often have fatty casts (refractile bodies).  They have lipid in renal parenchyma
  29. Best/concentrated urine sample collected when
    First thing in morning, pick up water at midnight
  30. yellow-green urine
  31. sweet, fruity odor of urine
  32. foamy urine
  33. leishmania donovani (Leishmaniasis)
    • intracellular protozoa
    • Thin, long oval on slide (promastigate stage)
  34. Giardia lambia cysts
    • protozoan parasite
    • Oval structures, not much detail.
  35. Budding yeast
    • bowling pin.  
    • candida,sp. 
    • Malassezia sp. in ear infections
  36. aspergillus conidiophores
    fungus, looks like dandilion.  Hyphae also present.
  37. Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
    • cutaneous, pulmonary or GI forms.  Often seen in herbivores (cattle, goats, sheep)
    • Gram negative or positive.  Some endospores, terminal endospores.  
    • Looks like a dotted line, maybe like a match.
  38. Borrelia burgdorferi (lyme)
    • vector-borne from deer ticks.  
    • stains a weak gram negative spirochete, coiled or wavy.  
    • Wavy line
  39. clostridium tetani
    gram + spore forming bacilli.  Endospores, both bi-polar and terminal.
  40. Salmonella typhimurium
    gram - pink rods, non-spore-forming bacilli.
  41. escheria coli
    gram negative bacilli
  42. klebsiella sp.
    gram negative encapsulated bacilli
  43. DTM
    • dermatophyte test media
    • agar turns red when dermatophytes grow
    • Can use RSM (rapid sporulation) or ESM (enhanced sporulation) or SDA (sabouraud dextrose agar) to accelerate growth
    • NOT 100% (bacterial and nonpathogenic fungus, use slide)
  44. during estrus cells are
    fully cornified
  45. PISA
    • changes in cells during estrus cycle
    • Parabasal (non-cornified)
    • Intermediate (non-cornified, bigger, nucleus smaller)
    • Superficial (cornified, bigger, nucleus smaller)
    • anuclear (cornified, no nucleus)
  46. Fractions
    • three portions of ejaculation
    • sperm-free fraction, sprem-rich fraction, sperm-poor fraction
  47. sperm-free fraction
    • may be some sperm
    • watery-looking fluid
    • first fraction to appear
    • not useful, discard and replace test tube
  48. Sperm-rich fraction
    • used in semen evaluation
    • milky color and consistency
    • volume varies between species and animal/age/health.
  49. sperm-poor fraction
    • third and last fraction
    • not ideal for analysis but sometimes used due to inability to change tubes in time
  50. Most important part in handling of semen
    sample temperature
  51. Gross motility
    • swirling movement of sperm called the wave motion
    • Evaluated as "very good", "good", "fair" and "poor"
    • Performed at 40x, first thing performed
  52. Extender
    • nutrition-rich liquid media which adds to life of sperm and supports through freezing.  
    • Bought/provided by ICG
    • Keeps sperm viable
  53. Sperm density
    amount of swirling in gross motility at 40x
Card Set
Urinalysis in Clinical laboratory techniques