Culture and Communications Exam 2

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  1. Western view on landscape
    Clear, main objects, one point perspective, a single vanishing point
  2. Eastern view on landscape
    No clear main objects, everything looks flat, bird's eye perspective
  3. Western view on portraits
    Highlight on the person, background is blurred and darkened (15% face to frame ratio)
  4. Eastern view on portraits
    Close attention to details, flat perspective (4% face to frame ratio)
  5. Westerner's attention
    Things exist by themselves and can be defined by their attributes. (Context-independent, object-oriented)
  6. Easterner's attention
    Things are inter-related. Various factors are involved in an event. (Context-dependent, context-sensitive)
  7. Analytic thinking
    Attention to objects, context independent, detachment of objects, use of formal logic, predicting/explaining behavior using rules
  8. Holistic thinking
    Attention to the field, context-inclusive, relationship oriented, reliance on experiential knowledge, predicting/explaining behavior using object-field relationships
  9. Low-context communications
    Main objects are more important.

    Explicit message, direct. 

    Communication is a way of exchanging information, ideas and opinions
  10. High-context communications
    Context is more important.

    Information is contextualized.

    Indirect message, talk around the point to embellish it.

    Communication is a way of engaging someone and building relationships.
  11. How do westerners  argue?
    Focus on main argument, deductive, point-first.
  12. How to east asians argue?
    Focus on context, dialectical principles, point-last
  13. Fundamental attributional bias
    Tendency to over-value dispositional or personality-based explanations while under-valuing situational explanations.
  14. perception
    The mental interpretation of external stimuli via sensation.
  15. Perceptual filters
    physiological, sociological (demographic, group membership, culture), psychological
  16. Stages of human information processing
    • 1: Input/sensation
    • 2: Storage/memory
    • 3: Recall/Retrieval
  17. Describe the typical memory of Americans.
    early dated, elaborated, self-focused, concerning a personal experience that took place at a particular time and place, individuals stand out
  18. Describe the typical memory of chinese.
    Later-dated, brief, centering on a social-interaction, concerning collective activity that took place regularly on multiple occasions, relationship-oriented, highlight significant others, personal relationships and social context
  19. Who groups by shared features? What kind of relationship is this?
    Americans. Taxonomic relationships.
  20. Who groups by relationships? What kind of relationship is this?
    East Asians. Thematic categorization.
  21. Categorization
    Sorting or classifying things into an identifiable group or compartment.
  22. Stereotype
    A way to save our cognitive resource. Membership in social categories that are believed to be associated with certain traits and behaviors.
  23. How do you draw the sterotype content model?
    • W     PITY                 PRIDE
    • A
    • R
    • M
    • T      CONTEMPT         ENVY
    • H

  24. Stereotype threat
    Anxiety in a situation where people have the potential to confirm a negative stereotype about their social group.

    Eg. Students from low socioeconomic backgrounds experience stereotype threat on intellectual tasks compared to students from high socioeconomic backgrounds.
  25. Ethnocentric attributional bias
    For in group members: Attribute positive acts to internal factors and negative acts to external factors.

    For out group members: Attribute positive acts to external factors and negative acts to internal factors.
  26. Involuntary membership group
    Groups to which people have no choice but to belong. Race, sex, ethnicity, etc.
  27. Involuntary nonmembership group
    People may want to belong to a group but are ineligible to join because they do not possess the needed qualifications.
  28. Voluntary membership group
    Groups to which people consciously choose to belong
  29. Voluntary nonmembership group
    People might be eligible for membership in a group but choose not to join
  30. In-group
    A group whose norms, aspirations and values shape the behavior of its members.
  31. Out-group
    A group whose attributes are dissimilar from those of the in-group, or that oppose the accomplishment of the in-groups goals.
  32. Reference groups
    A group to which we may or may not belong but with which we identify in some important way.
  33. What two reasons to we use reference groups? Functions?
    • comparative: For making judgments and evaluations
    • normative: Establish norms and standards to which group members conform.
Card Set
Culture and Communications Exam 2
Review for Exam 2, Culture and Communications, CMST355
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