Intro to Criminalistics

  1. Where is trace evidence found?
    Debris, Garments, Weapons, or Tools.
  2. In Atomic absorption is there a relationship between light absorbed & the concentration of the element in the test?
    Direct Relationship
  3. What is in the nucleus of an atom?
  4. What are isotopes?
    Same atomic # but different atomic mass.
  5. Define parfocal.
    when microscope is focused with one objective in position, the other objective can be rotated into place and the field will remain focus.
  6. As magnification increases, the field of view _____________?
  7. As magnification increases, the depth of focus ______________?
  8. To view of area above & below the depth of focus we adjust the ____________?
  9. Know the different microscopes:
    • Comparison:consists of two independent objective lenses joined together by an optical bridge to a common eyepiece lens
    • Stereoscopic: is two monocular compound microscopes properly spaced and aligned to present a three-dimensional image of a specimen to the viewer, who looks through both eyepiece lenses.
    • Micro-spectrophotometer:is a spectrophotometer coupled with a light microscope.
    • Polarizing: A microscope in which the object viewed is illuminated by polarized light.
    • Compound: the object to be magnified is placed under the lower lens (objective lens) and the magnified image is viewed through the upper lens (eyepiece lens)
    • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM): bombards a specimen with a beam of electrons instead of light to produce a highly magnified image from 100x to 100,0000
  10. What does a microscope uses to magnify an image?
    Virtual image
  11. Define:
    field of view
    objective lens
    depth of focus
    • Field of view: The area of the specimen that can been seen after its magnified.
    • Stage: the plate on which the specimens are placed.
    • Objective Lens: : the lens closest to the specimen; usually several objectives are mounted on a revolving nose piece
    • Depth of focus: thickness of a specimen that is entirely in focus under a microscope
  12. Components of compound microscope.
    Base, Arm, Stage, Body tube, Coarse Adjustment, Fine adjustment.
  13. Common Drugs:
    Narcotics, Opiates, Hallucinogens, Depressants, Stimulants, Club drugs
  14. Symptoms of abstinence (cold turkey) withdrawal.
    • severe physical illness
    • body chills, vomiting, stomach cramps, convulsions, insomnia, pain & hallucinations.
  15. What is Narcotics?
    • analgesics, meaning they relieve pain by a depressing action on the central nervous system. This effects functions such as blood pressure, pulse rate, and breathing rate.
    • Most common: opium
  16. What is derived from opium?
  17. What is codeine?
    • Codeine: prepared synthetically from morphine. Commonly used in cough syrup. 
    • (NOT stronger than morphine)
  18. Most widely use illicit drug is __________?
  19. What drugs are Narcotics?
    Morphine, Heroin, Methadone, Codeine
  20. What medical uses does Marijuana have?
    • female weakness, gout, rheumatism, malaria, beriberi, constipation, and absent-mindedness.
    • fiber
    • glaucoma
  21. What is methadone used for?
    Gets people off of Heroin.
  22. Affects of Marijuana?
    Increased heart rate, dry mouth, reddened eyes, impaired motor skills, & concentration.
  23. What is the most widely used and abused legal drug?
  24. What do barbiturates & anti- anxiety drugs do to a person?
    • Barbiturates: “downers,” are normally taken
    • orally and create a feeling of well-being, relax the body, and produce sleep.
    • Anti- anxiety: overcomes pressure and tension
  25. What does sniffing solvents do to a person?
    slur speech, impair judgement, & double vision
  26. What are depressants?
    alcohol (ethanol), barbiturates,tranquilizers, and various substances that can be sniffed, (airplane glue, model cement), or aerosol gas propellants such as freon
  27. What are stimulants?
    Amphetamines, Cocaine, Caffeine, Nicotine
  28. What are Hallucinogens?
    Marijuana, LSD, PCP
  29. How is cocaine used?
    Sniffed or Snorted
  30. What is tranquilizers?
    • unlike barbiturates, produce a
    • relaxing tranquility without impairment of high-thinking faculties or inducing
    • sleep
  31. Know about MDMA (Ecstasy) & Rohypnol (Club Drugs)
    • Rohypnol: are central nervous system depressants that are often connected with drug-facilitated sexual assault, rape, and robbery
    • MDMA: a synthetic mind-altering drug that exhibits many hallucinogenic and amphetamine-like effects. Ecstasy enhances self-awareness and decreases inhibitions; however, seizures, muscle breakdown, stroke, kidney failure, and cardiovascular system failure often accompany chronic abuse
  32. Controlled substance act schedules:
    • Schedule I: drugs have a high potential for abuse and have no currently accepted medical use such as heroin, marijuana, methaqualone and LSD.
    • Schedule II: drugs have a high potential for abuse and have medical use with severe
    • restrictions such as cocaine, PCP, and most amphetamine and barbiturate prescriptions.
    • Schedule III: drugs have less potential for abuse and a currently accepted medical use such as all barbiturate prescriptions not covered under Schedule II, codeine, and anabolic steroids.
    • Schedule IV: drugs have a low potential for abuse and have a current medical use such as darvon, phenobarbital, and some tranquilizers such as diazepam (valium) and chlordiazepoxide (librium).
    • Schedule V: drugs must show low abuse potential and have medical use such as opiate drug mixtures that contain nonnarcotic medicinal ingredients.
  33. Drug color test & what drugs its used for?
    • Marquis: Heroin, Morphine, most opium
    • Dillie- Koppanyi: Barbiturates
    • Duquenois- Levine: Marijuana
    • Van Urk: LSD
    • Scott Test: Cocaine
  34. What test is more specific?
    Microcrystalline Tests
  35. What test is used first by drug analyst?
    Color Tests
  36. Which gives more of a positive I.D of a drug? UV or IR spectrophotometry?
  37. Which techniques allows for separation & specific identification of a mixture?
  38. Know the factors in the absorb rate of alcohol into the bloodstream.
    • Alcohol appears in the blood within minutes after it has been taken by mouth and slowly increases in concentration while it is being absorbed from the stomach and the small intestine into the bloodstream.
    • When all the alcohol has been absorbed, a maximum alcohol level is reached in the blood; and the post absorption period begins.
  39. Know Sobriety test
    Breath tester, Field test, GC testing
  40. pH Scale
    • 0 1 2 3 4 5 6        7        8 9 10 11 12 13 14 
    • <Acid------------Nuetral---------------Basic>
    • Acid Drugs: Barbiturates & asprin
    • Basic Drugs: Cocaine, Methadone, Phencyclidine, Amphetamines
  41. Ways alcohol is eliminated from the body?
    Oxidation & excretion
  42. Alcohol is oxidized where in the body?
  43. Blood types:
    A, B, AB, O
  44. What do we use breath test for?
    determining alcohol intoxications
  45. Alcohol burn off rate is?
  46. What light is used in measuring alcohol during breath test?
  47. Where do we collect buccal cells?
    Mouth or inside cheek
  48. Each atom of the same element always have the same number of what?
    Protons & electrons
  49. Proton charge:
  50. Atomic number?
    The # of protons in the nucleus
  51. What is the mass relationship between proton & neutron?
Card Set
Intro to Criminalistics