Phycotoxins and dinoflagellates

  1. What they phycotoxins called?
    five names
    • Microcystin
    • Anatoxin-a
    • Cyanotoxin
    • cylindrospermopsin
    • domoc acid
  2. What do Microcystin target the most?

    Where are cyanotoxins usually found?

    Can the toxin penetrate directly into animal membranes/

    Are microcystin heat stable and cause liver cancer?

    fresh water or brackish water.


  3. What are the two main types of anatoxins?

    are they neurotoxins?

    What do they cause?

    What breaks anatoxins down?
    • anatoxin a
    • anatoxin as

    yes, anatoxins are neurotoxins

    they cause paralysis, respiratory distress, asphyxiation and convulsions and death

    are alkaloids

    susceptible to breakown by sunlight.
  4. What produces domoic acid?

    What does domoic acid cause?

    What are the symptoms?

    amnesic shellfish poisoning which results in the loss of short term memory

    • advnm
    • abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, loss of memory.
  5. What are the toxins produces by dinoflagellates?
    • Brevetoxin
    • Saxitoxin
    • Gonyautoxin
    • Ciguatoxin
  6. What are the dinoflagellates that cause disease in humans?
    • Karenia brevis
    • Gonyaulax catenella
    • Gambierdiscus toxicus
    • pfiesteria piscicida
  7. What produces Brevetoxin?

    What is the diease called that is caused by Brevetoxin?

    What are the symptoms of poisoning?
    Karenia brevis

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, food poisoning

    • tingling sensation in mouth and fingers
    • dizziness
    • ataxia
    • myalgia
    • Gi symptoms
    • mild and self-limiting
  8. What produces saxitoxin?
    What does it turn into?
    What is the disease caused by saxitoxin called?
    What are the symptoms of poisoning?
    • Gonyaulax catenella
    • Gonyautoxin
    • paralytic shellfish poisoning.
    • numbness (paresthesia)
    • Gi symptoms
    • severe symptoms: dysphonia, dysphagia, ataxia, respiratory failure.
  9. What produces ciguatoxin?
    What does it cause?
    How does the toxin remain in the fish even after it has been cooked?

    What are symptoms of Ciguatoxin?
    • Gambierdiscus toxicus
    • food poisoning
    • The toxin is heat stable.

    • gi symptoms
    • reversal of cold and hot sensation
    • bradycardia
    • myalgia
    • coma and respiratory failura
  10. What produces pfiesteria exotoxins?

    What do the two toxin cause?

    How do the organisms feed on the fish?

    What neurological symptoms do pfiesteria exotoxins cause?

    What other symptoms are seen?
    Pfiesteria piscicida

    • one toxin stuns fish
    • other toxin causes lesions on the fish

    used fish's redl blood cells which allow it to sexually reproduce.

    Prolonged amnesia, confusion, headachess, musce cramps

    • gastrointestinal complaints
    • skil lesions in humans exposed to the toxin at the point of contact with infected fish.
Card Set
Phycotoxins and dinoflagellates
patho and phycotoxins