Chapter 2

  1. Define a project

    • C)
    • Projects are always executed
  2. What is a program?
    • A group of related projects
    • Coordination may decrease risk etc.
  3. Describe the PMO?
    An organization that centralizes the management of projects

    Provides 1 of 3 roles

    • 1. Policies and methodologies
    • 2. Support and guidance
    • 3. Project managers for different projects
  4. Describe a portfolio?
    A group of projects and/or programs used to achieve a specific strategic business goal
  5. List unique things about project objectives
    • Contained in project charter
    • Projects considered complete when met
    • A reason for terminating a project before completion is that the project objectives cannot be met
    • Complete understanding of objectives is achieved over the length of the project
    • The PM's role is to accomplish the project objective.
    • Quality activities make sure the project meets its objectives.
    • Risk management enhances opportunities & reduces threats to the project objectives.
    • Watch & track items that could negatively impact the objective i.e. risk & stakeholder influence
    • Projects often require trade-offs between requirements & objectives
    • Determined in the initiating process & refined in planning process
    • One purpose of the Develop Project Management Plan process is to determine how work will be accomplished to meet project objectives.
  6. What is MBO?
    Management by objectives
  7. What is the MBO philosophy?
    • 1. Establish unambiguous, realistic objectives
    • 2. Periodic evaluation to see the objectives are met
    • 3. Implement corrective action
  8. What do Constraints help evaluate?
    Competing demands
  9. List common constraints?
    Time, cost, risk, scope, quality, resources, customer satisfaction
  10. What is OPM3?
    PMI's Organizational Project Management Maturity Model. A certification of an Orgs PM maturity (like CMM)
  11. What is a stakeholder?
    People or organizations whose interests are + or - impacted

    • Note: think of them as assistant team members
    • Their role is heavily defined in the communication plan
  12. What does Human Resource Management provide?
    An understanding of roles on the project
  13. For the purpose of taking the PMI Test, what is the default organizational structure?

    Note: Organizational structures can be defined in terms of the PM's level of authority
  14. What is Organizational Structure Theory?
    It defines who has the power
  15. What are the types of organizational structures?
    • Functional
    • Projectized
    • Matrix
  16. Describe a functional organizational structure
    Most Common

    • Adv
    • Silo
    • Grouped by areas of specialization

    • Dadv
    • Functional Manager has the control
    • More emphasis on functional specialty than the project
  17. Describe a projectized organizational structure
    • Adv
    • Organized by project
    • Loyal team
    • More effective communications than a functional org

    • Dadv
    • No Home after project
    • Duplication of facilities and job
    • Less efficient use of resources
  18. Describe a Matrix organizational structure
    • Can be weak or strong
    • Maximize strengths of both the functional and projectized forms

    • Adv
    • Organized by project
    • Highly visible project objectives
    • Improved PM control over resources
    • Maximum resource utilization
    • More effective communications than functional org

    • Dadv
    • 2 bosses
    • Extra admin needed
    • Complex to Monitor and control
    • Resource contentions
  19. Who has the power in a Strong Matrix organizational structure
    Power rests with the project manager
  20. Describe the PM roles in a Weak Matrix organizational structure
    • Project Expediter:
    • Primarily a staff assistant and communications coordinator
    • Cannot personally make or enforce decisions

    • Project Coordinator:
    • Has some power to make decisions
    • Some authority
    • Reports to a higher-level manager
  21. Describe a Tight Matrix organizational structure
    • Not an organization
    • Refers to locating the offices for the project team in the same room.
  22. What is a lifecycle?
    A progression through a series of differing stages of development (there are 2 life cycles and 1 process)
  23. What are the 2 lifecycles and what process is used?
    • Product: From conception to withdrawal
    • Conception, growth, Maturity, decline, withdrawal

    Project: project life cycle for what is needed to do to complete the work

    Project management process for managing the project.
  24. What are the Project Management Processes?
    initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing
  25. Lessons Learned includes what type of information
    What was done right, done wrong, could be done differently

    • 3 areas
    • Technical aspects
    • Project management: success of WBS, risk planning, etc.
    • Management: communications & leadership
  26. When is the Project Manager Assigned
    Prior to the beginning of the Planning phase
  27. What process group is the "General product description" defined in
  28. What is the near critical path
  29. How can Cost Benefit Analysis be used
    To determine which project is better
  30. What does Cost Benefit Analysis measure
    Initial cost plus future operating costs
  31. What are Decision Models used for
    Project selection
  32. What is the output of Define Scope and input to Create WBS
    Project Scope Statement
  33. The Process Improvement Plan is in what knowledge area and the output of which process
    • Project Quality Management
    • Plan Quality
  34. What does Failure Cost indicate
    Cost of poor quality
  35. What is a Secondary Risk
    the result of implementing a response to another risk
  36. Manufacturing is considered a process as it is not temporary.
    • Manufacturing a product is a process
    • Manufactuing a process is a project
  37. PM needs to prevent Problems
    Not sepnd time solving problems
  38. Define Operations
    • produces the same product or produces a repetitive service and requires business process management
    • supports the business
  39. What is Rolling Wave planning
    a project developed in steps aka iterative
  40. What are the 6 primary competing constraints
    Time, Cost, Resources, Risk, Quality, Scope (aka Customer Satisfaction)
  41. What does PMO stand for
    Program or Porject management office
  42. When is Effective Leadership, Motiation and team bldg most critical
    Beginning phases
  43. List the Decision Making types
    Command, Consult, Consensus, Random
  44. List the Decision Making Steps
    Problem Definition, Problem Solution, Ideas to action (choose best soluion), Solution Action plan, Solutition Evaluation Plan, Evaluate how well the problem was solved
  45. Define Negotiation
    to Confer w/those of shared or opposed interests to reach an agreement If done well has a high value in project success
  46. Scope Time Cost Baseline
    Original plan plus approved changes, Use tools to measeure how performance deviates from the plan
  47. Who should help solve Project Manager and Customer issues
    Project Sponsor
  48. What is the Triple Constraint (Iron Triangle)
    • Scope, Time (schedule), Cost (Budget)
    • look at all impacts when one needs change
  49. Project Management Plan is the culmination of All planning Processes. 15 docs fused into 1. Name them.
    Scope Management Plan, Scope Baseline, Requirements MP, Schedule MP, Cost MP, Quality MP, Process Improvement Plan, HR MP, Communications MP, Risk MP, Procurement MP, Schedule Baseling, Cost Perf. Baseline, Change MP, Config MP
  50. Define what is a Project Management Plan
    A single approved Document that guides Execution, Monitoring and Controlling and Closure
  51. Define the Work Authorization System (WAS)
    Part of the PMIS, ensures work is performed at the right time and right sequence
  52. Enterprise Enviromental Factors
    An input to most planning processes. They are things that impact but are not part of the organizational structure. (Organizational structure, Laws, Stakeholder risk tolerance, Organization work ethic)
  53. Organizational Process assests
    An input, policies, tools, templates (EPK, MPP), Knowledge DB's (Sharepoint) etc. A project should contribute to these assests
  54. What is Work Performance Information
    An input during execution that helps determine the status of deliverables, and performance against cost and schedule goals and quality
  55. Expert Judgement
    Common Tool on planning processes
  56. PMIS Project Management Information System
    Part of Enterprise Environmental Factors, Supports the PM to optimize scheduel, collect and distribute info, aide to produce and then track documents and deliverables. Is primarily software, (Config Mgmnt (version control)), Change Control System are part of PMIS
  57. Change Requests as an ITTO
    Common Output during executing and Monitor and Controll processes. Goes through Perform Integrated Change Control, Requires Impact evaluation, Are approved or rejected, If approved, baseline changes are needed (PMP, Scope, Cost, Schedule etc.)
  58. Types of Change Requests are
    • Corrective actions (change to bring future results in line w/plan)
    • preventive actions (change made to avoid a problem
    • defect repair
  59. Plan Updates
    Common output during Planning, Executing, Montior and Controlling
  60. PMI Processes follow the process of Project Management
    Knowledge areas are project management framework, Project Management process plus the 9 knowledge areas.
  61. What are the 2 methodologies to complete a project
    • Project Lifecycle (needed to complete the work)
    • PM Methodology (5 PM Processes for managing the project)
  62. What are the project lifecycle Phase to Phase relationships
    • Sequential - Reduce uncertainty but not the schedule
    • Overlapping - Schedule Compression (fast tracking), increases risk and rework
    • Iterative - good in undefined or rapidly changing env. disadv (no long term planning)
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Chapter 2
PMP Chapter 2 Prep