Electricity Chapter 11

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  1. Electric Circuit
    • A closed path along which electrons that are powered by an energy source can flow.
    • This can take the form of a circuit board, loads wired together, the wires in your house, and even something as large as the power grid.
  2. Voltaic Cell
    • A source of energy that generates an electric current by chemical reactions involving two different metals or metal compounds separated by a solution that is a conductor.
    • Some common types would be: Zinc-Carbon, Alkaline, Lead-Acid, Silver-Oxide, etc.
  3. Battery
    • A connection of two or more cells.
    • When you place two AA "Batteries" (which are really cells) in a flashlight you make a battery.
  4. Electrode
    • One of two metal terminals in a cell or battery.
    • They must be made of different metals with different holds onto electrons so the electrons know which way to flow.
  5. Electrolyte
    • A solution or paste that conducts charge.
    • The electrolyte separates the two electrodes and the chemical reaction that takes place to move electrons happens within the electrolyte.
  6. Dry cell
    • A cell that contains an electrolyte that is a paste.
    • Some common dry cells would be Zinc-carbon and Alkaline.
  7. Wet cell
    • A cell that contains a liquid electrolyte.
    • An example would be a lead-acid battery.
  8. Primary cell
    • A cell that can only be used once.
    • Some examples would be Zinc-Carbon and Alkaline.
  9. Secondary cell
    • A cell that can be recharged.
    • Some common types would be lead-acid and lithium-ion.
  10. Fuel cell
    • A cell that generates electricity through the chemical reactions of fuel that is stored outside the fuel cell.
    • An example would be a hydrogen fuel cell that combines hydrogen and oxygen to make water, heat, and electricity.
  11. Solar Cell
    A cell that converts sunlight into electrical energy.
  12. Terminal
    • The location on a cell that must be connected to other components to form a circuit.
    • Both the positive terminal and negative terminal must be connected to the circuit to complete it.
    • Electrons flow from the negative terminal to the positive terminal.
  13. Switch
    • A control device that can complete or break the circuit to which it is connected.
    • This is useful because circuits don't have to be on all the time if you have a switch.
  14. Open circuits
    • A circuit that contains a gap or break.
    • An open circuit can not function since there is no complete path for electrons to travel along.
    • Hitting a switch or button on a lamp or TV can open or close a circuit.
  15. Electric current
    • The rate of movement of electric charge (flow of electrons).
    • An analogy would be to think of how many m
    • of water flow by in a river per second.
  16. Coulomb (C)
    The quantity of charge that is equal to the charge of 6.25 * 1018 electrons.
  17. Ampere (A)
    • The unit of electric current, equivalent to one coulomb per second. 
    • An ammeter measures the amount of current in one location of a circuit in amperes.
  18. Electrical resistance
    • The property of a substance that hinders electric current and converts electrical energy to other forms of energy.
    • Some materials have lower or higher resistances than other materials.
    • Materials with lower resistances are conductors while materials with very high resistances are insulators.
  19. Resistor
    • A devices used in an electric circuit to decrease the current through a component by a specific amount.
    • These are useful to ensure that components in a circuit don't get too much energy and break.
  20. Load
    • A resistor or any other device that transforms electrical energy into heat, motion, sound, light, or other forms of energy.
    • Some examples would be: a speaker, a light a bulb, a motor, a stove, etc.
  21. Potential difference (voltage)
    The difference between the electric potential energy per unit of charge at two points in a circuit.
  22. Volt
    • The unit for potential difference, equivalent to one joule (J) per coulomb (C).
    • The equation to find potential difference is:
    • potential difference = difference in potential energy (J) / charge (C)
  23. Circuit Diagram
    • A diagram that uses standard symbols to represent the components in an electric circuit and their connections. 
    • Some standard symbols are that two parallel lines of different length represent a cell, straight lines are connecting wires, and a switch is a portion of the wire that looks swivelled open.
    • Image Upload 1
  24. Series circuit
    • A circuit in which there is only one path along which electrons can flow.
    • If a series circuit is broken at any point then the whole circuit will stop functioning.
  25. Parallel circuit
    • A circuit in which there is more than one path along which electrons can flow.
    • Parallel circuits can be broken and any path not affected by the break can still function.
  26. Ohm's law
    • The ratio of potential difference to current is a constant called resistance.
    • The equation is written as V=IR
    • Thus the more resistance in a circuit, the less current since they is more resistance to the movement of electrons and the movement of electrons is current.
  27. Ohm (Ω)
    • The unit for resistance, equivalent to one volt per ampere (V/A).
    • If you substitute in potential difference and current measurements into the equation V=IR you can find the resistance in ohms.
    • All loads in a circuit increase the resistance of a circuit.
  28. Superconductor
    • A material through which electric charge can flow with no resistance.
    • An example of a superconductor is when the wires in the CERN supercollider are cooled to a few degrees above zero with liquid helium.
  29. Non-ohmic
    • Not following Ohm's law.
    • An incandescent light bulb filament is non-ohmic since the filament increases in temperature which increases the resistance and produces a non-ohmic energy curve.
  30. Loads in series
    • In a series circuit the potential difference across the cell must equal the sum of all the potential differences across all of the loads.
    • VT = V1 + V2 + V3 + ...
    • The current of through the battery is equal to the current through all the loads.
    • IT = I1 = I2 = I3 = ...
  31. Loads in parallel
    • In a parallel circuit the potential difference across the cell is equal to the potential differences across of the loads.
    • VT = V1 = V2 = V3 = ...
    • The current total current must be equal to the sum of all the currents through all the paths.
    • IT = I1 + I2 + I3 + ...
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Electricity Chapter 11
My Vocab cards for electricity chapter 10.
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