psych 2-6

  1. Early Childhood 2-6yrs
    • • 2 yrs- jump, drunken run (bc top heavy), cant kick ball w/o falling
    • • 2 ½ -3 yrs- normal gait- bc growth continues in a continuous way
    • • 6yrs- participate in team sport, ride a bike (usually still need training wheels), throw/catch a ball
    • • Fine motor development-
    • o 2yr old, just starting to dress themselves and start feed themselves
    • o 4-5 use blunt knife
    • o 6yrs old- can dress self alone, independent eating (greater autonomy)
    • • Development not universal – cultural specific (most kids now don’t know how to tie shoes bc all with velcro)
    • • Draw or Writing
    • o 2 yrs old- scribbles- not a lot of strength- use strength from arm- why break things quickly
    • o 3 yrs- can draw circle
    •  Then face
    •  Stick body from head, hair, toes, hands
    • o 5 yrs- realize body missing
    • • IQ tests at this age are not reliable- use to determine developmental delay
    • o Don’t really determine IQ until 7-8yrs
    • • Child centered vs Teacher Directed (pre-K, K)
    • o Child centered
    •  Children have more choices
    • o Teacher Directed
    •  Child sit in circle and teacher ask what color is this?
    • o By 3rd grade- CC kids take on more challenges, join more after school activities
    • o TD- just do what was necessary- didn’t want to work beyond themselves
    • o Same things in high school
    • o Better social skills
  2. Piaget
    • Preoperational (2-7 yrs)
    • • Make Believe Play
    • • (Socio-dramatic Play)
    • 1. Detaches from real life (any object can be made into anything)
    • a. Food just for the person  pot become bed for stuffed animal
    • 2. Less self centered
    • a. Originally you just make food for yourself  then make food for others  then at age 7 the dolls interact with each other, the kid is not part of it anymore
    • 3. More complex
    • • Kids in this stage
    • 1. Egocentrism
    • a. They expect that how they see it is how it is, they think of it from their view
    • 2. Magical Thinking
    • a. Believing in things that are really fake
    • b. We believe whatever our culture tells us to believe
    • 3. Animistic Thinking
    • a. Believing inanimate things have animate properties
    • b. Animals, pets, blanket (she, he)
    • c. Imaginary friends
    • • Conservation
    • o Mass, number, volume
    • o Centration irreversibility- what you see is where it is
    •  Think more water in tall glass
  3. Vygotsky
    • • Active participants- we seek it out
    • • Language is key!!
    • • Pragmatics- nonverbal cues
    • o Everything social learning
    • • Private Speech---- have more support than Piaget
    • o Kids talk out loud to themselves
    • o 2yrs- say thoughts out loud (egocentrism- don’t understand that it is annoying)
    • o Part of natural process- they talk like their parents
    • o Over time we internalize it
    • o Kids w/o learning disability loose speaking out loud at 1st grade
    • o Kids w/ learning disability loose it at 3rd grade
    •  Normal gradual process
    •  Helps to keep them focused
  4. Freud – Phallic Stage
    • • Foundation of moral development
    • o Super ego
    •  What is right or wrong
    • • Gender identity
    • o 3 yrs- Understand what it means to be a girl or boy in our culture
    • o Gender identity does not mean they want to be the other sex- gay men want to be men
    • ¬¬____________________
    • • Bad from Freud
    • o Oedipal Complex
    •  Thought about sex
    •  As super ego develops give up wish of marrying mom and separate with mom and bond more with father
    • • Develop gender identity with dad
    •  If not then homosexuality
    • o If sympathy or empathy don’t develop here then don’t develop
  5. Erikson- Initiative vs Guilt
    • • Initiative- Understanding your ability in the world
    • o Kids think they are good at everything
    •  Every kid should receive a medal
    • o When at end of this stage they have to realize that they are not the best at everything
    • • Guilt- Not okay to be so exuberant to knock someone off the seesaw bc you want to try it
    • • Appropriate guilt stops us from doing something bad
    • • Develop too much guilt if cant get out
    • o Have to tell them how to fix it after feel guilty
    •  You apologize
    • Emotional Development
    • Second/ Higher order/ Self-conscious emotion
    • • Only proud if someone is there to see it
    • • 3 yrs- internalize pride and run to find/ show mom
    • • 2-3yrs- development of empathy, sympathy, guilt
    • o Empathy- feel with person
    •  In preschool kids- if one kid cries, they all cry
    • o Sympathy feel for person
    •  If one kid cries they try to talk them through it
    • o Guilt
    •  Come naturally if get empathy
  6. Want kid to feel guilt but give them a way out -Self-regulation of Emotion
    • • 2yrs height of temper tantrums
    • • Tantrums decrease bc can express more with language
    • • 3-4yr usually only do it in home
    • o If at this age in public then need help
    • • if didn’t do well you shouldn’t receive award (around 5-6)
    • o Kids don’t learn self-regulation
    •  Kids start questioning
  7. Social Skills
    • • Make believe play
    • • Parton
    • o Play develops in 3 steps
    •  Solo/ Solitary play (2-3 yrs)
    • • “On looker”- notice what the other kid doing- lead to parallel play
    • • Unless adult intervention they will only interact by saying I want to play this
    • • Will play with separate toys
    • • Will not play together
    •  Parallel Play (4-5 yrs)
    • • Playing with the same toys at the same toys but they don’t interact
    • o Don’t talk, share
    •  True Interactive Play (5-6yrs)
    • • Sociative play
    • o Don’t get together and build the same thing together but talk about the other’s toys
    • • Cooperate play (6-7
    • o Build something together
    • o Discontinuous, one pathway
    • o Normal for a 5 yr old where do cooperate play and then want to go back and do solo play
    • o If child does not progress then problem
    •  Stuck in solo play- autism, anxiety,
    • • Want early intervention
    •  Consistently at cooperate play and then go into solo play and stay there
    • • Developing anxiety
    •  Physical problem- hearing problem
    • • Friendships
    • o Based on activity or something similar they like
    •  Both like hello kitty
    • o Benefit emotionally if have the similar kid with them
    •  Kid regress or haves solo play if best friend go on vacation
  8. Forming Friendships
    • o Crick and Dodge
    •  Aggression in teenage boys
    • • Routed in information processing and preschool play
    •  3-4 yr old take an accident event and tell themselves that they did it on purpose
    • • Bully then problematic kid
Card Set
psych 2-6