In a cumulative record, fast responding is indicated by a ____________, and no responding is indicated by a ___________.
steep line, horizontal line
Responding on a fixed-ratio schedule typically shows a(n) __________ pattern, and responding on a fixed-interval schedule typically shows a(n) pattern.
Responding on ____________ schedules is usually rapid and steady, and responding on __________ schedules is usually slower and steady.
variable ratio, variable interval
____________ behavior is controlled by the schedule of reinforcement; _____________ behavior is controlled by instructions subjects are given or form on their own.
IRT reinforcement theory states that longer interresponse times are more likely to be reinforced on ____________ schedules, but bursts of responding are more likely to be reinforced on __________ schedules.
In behavioral marital therapy, a written agreement between spouses is called a ____________.
When a reinforcer is delivered after every n responses, where n is the size of the ratio, this is referred to as: (Type of reinforcement schedule)
Fixed – ratio schedule
When the amount of time that must pass before a reinforcer is stored varies unpredictably from reinforcer to reinforcer, this is referred to as: (Type of reinforcement schedule)
A hunter sets a trap for rabbits in the nearby woods. After a short wait, the hunter finally sees the rabbit and closes the trap for the capture. What kind of reinforcement schedule is this hunter most likely to be on? (The reinforcement schedule is not predictable)
Variable interval schedule
According to Skinner, a reinforcement schedule is a rule that states under what conditions a reinforcer will be delivered. (Types of reinforcement schedules)
Another type of reinforcement schedule is called the differential reinforcement of low rates schedule. (Reinforcement based upon low rate of responding)
The hardest type of behavior to extinguish is that based upon continuous reinforcement. (Partial Reinforcement difficult to extinguish)
Skinner developed this device to plot the moment-by-moment behaviors of his subjects. This device is called a _______.
The differential reinforcement of high rates schedule is one in which a certain number of responses must occur within a fixed amount of time before a reinforcer is administered.
In a token economy, the principle of conditioned reinforcement is used to improve or promote behavior changes in a group.
Extinction is more rapid after continuous reinforcement than after a schedule of intermittent reinforcement.
rule that states under what conditions a reinforcer will be delivered
device that records responses, with time on horizontal axis and responses on vertical axis
(the most researched)
Four Simple Reinforcement Schedules
delivers a reinforcer after a fixed number of responses
delivers a reinforcer after a variable & unpredictable number of responses
first response after a fixed amount of time has elapsed is reinforced
reinforcer becomes available after variable & unpredictable time intervals
Extinction is more rapid after CRF than after a schedule of intermittent reinforcement
The Partial Reinforcement Effect
o Discrimination Hypothesis
o Generalization Decrement Hypothesis
Explanations for The Partial Reinforcement Effect
· Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL)
· Differential Reinforcement of High Rates (DRH)
· Concurrent Schedule
· Chained Schedule
Other Reinforcement Schedules
· Reinforcer Quality
· Rate of Reinforcement
· Delay of Reinforcement
· Response Effort
· Amount of Reinforcement
· Level of Motivation
Factors Affecting Performance on Reinforcement Schedules
Behavior that is controlled by the schedule of reinforcement or punishment.
Behavior that is controlled by a verbal or mental rule about how to behave.
o Animals are not capable