Neuro disease.txt

  1. Chronic autoimmune disease that effects the myelin sheath and conduction pathway of the CNS
  2. Chronic disease which has periods of remission and exacerbation
  3. One of the leading causes of neurologic disability in young adults
  4. Four types of MS
    Relapsing, remitting; primary progressive; secondary progressive; progressive relapsing
  5. Manifestations of MS
    increased fatigue, stiffness of extremities, flexor spasms at night, Increased DTR, positive Babinski, unsteady gait, poor coordination, clumsy motor movement, tinnitus, vertigo, hearing loss, facial weakness, dysphagia, dysarthria, visual problems, numbness, tingling burning or crawling sensation
  6. Who gets MS
    ages 20-40, women twice as often as men, most among white (although all can be affected)
  7. Help for MS patient
    may require assistance as disease progresses, promote mobility and manage symptoms, teach self management, provide resources and alternative therapies
  8. Four cardinal symptoms of parkinson’s
    tremor, rigidity, brady or akinesia and postural instability
  9. Decrease of the amount of dopamine in the brain
  10. Clinical manifestations of parkinson’s
    rigidity or resistance to passive movement; “freezing”; masklike facies, cognitive, bladder and bowel changes
  11. Facts about parkinson’s
    exact cause unknown, maybe environmental and genetic factors, older than 40, reduced estrogen, 50% more men than women
  12. Definition of ALS
    adult onset upper and lower motor neuron disease
  13. Characteristics of ALS
    progressive weakness, muscle wasting and spasticity that leads to paralysis; begins in one area of the body and spreads to other parts until whole body is involved; muscles to spinal cord and brainstem weaken, atrophy and die
  14. Manifestation of ALS
    autonomic and sensory nervous systems are not involved, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, eventually respiratory muscles become involved and lead to pneumonia and death
  15. Facts about ALS
    death within 3 years of diagnosis, no cause, cure or specific treatment, affects people between 40-60, more common in men; mechanical ventilation prolongs survival but not disease progression
  16. Definition of huntington’s
    hereditary transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait at time of conception; movement disorder that causes both neurologic and behavioral symptoms
  17. What happens in Huntington’s
    progressive mental status changes leading to dementia and radip, jerky movements in limbs, trunk and facial muscles; excessive amount of dopamine
  18. Hallmark of huntington’s
  19. How do pts of huntington’s die
    pneumonia, HF or complications of mobility
  20. Facts about huntington’s
    usually beins at 30-50, worsens in next 1-2 decades; 20K-50K with gene, men and women the same; clinical onset is gradual; average 15 year course of the disease
  21. Definition of GB
    acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy that affects peripheral nervous system causing motor weakness and sensory abnormalities; immune mediated pathologic process
  22. Manifestation of GB
    sudden onset of weakness and pain, 3 stages, some may require mechanical vent
  23. Facts about GB
    uncommon, usually after 55, exact cause is unclear but usually follows acute illness, trauma, surgery or immunization 1-3 weeks prior to onset; healing occurs in reverse
  24. Myasthenia gravis definition
    acquired autoimmune disease characterized by fatigue and weakness primarily in muscles innervated by the cranial nerves, skeletal and respiratory muscles; mild to rapidly developing generalized weakness that can lead to death from respiratory failure
  25. What causes MG
    autoantibody attack on the acetylcholine receptors causing nerve impulses not to be transmitted to skeletal muscles resulting in no contraction of the muscles
  26. Clinical manifestation of MG
    usually slow onset, voice weakness, choking, difficulty with head things (combing hair, brushing teeth, etc), facial muscles of expression, chewing and swallowing problems, regurg of fluids through nose; has remissions and exacerbation
  27. Facts about MG
    any age, equal in men and women, not hereditary but familial incidence, there is a relationship between MG and hyperplasia of the thymus gland which is often abnormal
Card Set
Neuro disease.txt
Neuro disease