AP1 Exam 1

  1. Definition: anatomy
    cutting open.
  2. Definition: physiology
    is the study of how living organisms perform their vital functions.
  3. Definition: medical terminology
    is the use of prefixes, suffixes, word roots, and combining forms to construct anatomical, physiological, or medical terms.
  4. Definition: gross anatomy
    involves the examination of relatively large structures and features usually visible with the unaided eye.
  5. Definition: cytology
    is the study of cellular structure and function
  6. Definition: cells
    the simplest units of life
  7. Definition: tissues
    groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform specific functions.
  8. Definition: organs
    groups of tissues
  9. Definition: human physiology
    is the study of the functions of the human body.
  10. Definition: homeostasis
    refers to the exsitence of a stable internal enviroment.
  11. Definition: negative feedback
    is an initial stimulus produces a response that opposes the change in the original conditions. It is the primary mechanism of homeostatic regulation.
  12. Definition: positive feedback
    is an initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the change in the original conditions, rather than opposing it.
  13. Definition: state of equilibrium
    it exists when opposing processes or forces are in balance.
  14. Definition: abdominopelvic quadrant
    one of four divisions of the anterior abdominal surface.
  15. Definition: abdominopelvic region
    one of nine divisions of the anterior abdominal surface.
  16. Definition: CT (CAT)
    also known as computerized axial tomography, is an imaging technique that uses x-rays to reconstruct the body's three-dimensional structure.
  17. Definition: disease
    a malfunction of organ systems resulting from a failure of homeostatic regulation.
  18. Definition: DSA
    also known as digital subtraction angiography, is a x-ray technique used to monitor blood flow through spefic organs using radiopaque dye.
  19. Definition: embryology
    the study of structural changes during the first two months of development.
  20. Definition: histology
    the study of tissues.
  21. Definition: MRI
    also known as magnetic resonance imaging, is an imaging technique that employs a magnetic field and radio waves to portray subtle structural differences.
  22. Definition: PET scan
    also known as positron emission tomography, is an imaging technique that shows the chemical functioning, as well as the structure, of an organ.
  23. Definition: radiologist
    a physician who specializes in performing and analyzing radiological procedures.
  24. Definition: sign
    a physical manifestation of a disease that can be measured and observed through sight, hearing, or touch.
  25. Definition: sprial-CT
    a method of processing computerized tomography data to provide rapid, 3D images of internal organs.
  26. Definition: symptom
    a patient's perception of a change in normal body function
  27. Definition: ultrasound
    an imaging technique that uses brief bursts of high-frequency sound waves reflected by internal structures.
  28. Definition: x-rays
    high-energy radiation that can penetrate living tissues.
  29. Definition: chemistry
    is the science that deals with the structure of matter.
  30. Definition: matter
    is anything that takes up space and has mass
  31. Definition: mass
    in the amount of material in matter, is a physical property that determines the weight of an object in earth's gravitational field.
  32. Definition: atoms
    the smallest units of matter.
  33. Definition: subatomic particles
    composes an atom, which includes, but is not limited to protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  34. Definition: protons
    similar in size to neutrons, but are postively charged.
  35. Definition: neutrons
    similar in size to protons, but are electrically neutral.
  36. Definition: electrons
    are lighter than protons and bear a negative electoral charge.
  37. Definition: element
    is a pure substance composed of atoms of one only one kind.
  38. Definition: isotopes
    are atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons.
  39. Definition: mass number
    the total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus
  40. Definition: radioisotopes
    are isotopes that spontaneously emit subatomic particles or radiation from the nuclei, in measurable amounts.
  41. Definition: half-life
    the time required for half of a given amount of the isotope to decay.
  42. Definition: covalent bonds
    is when atoms can complete their outer electron shells by sharing electrons with other atoms.
  43. Definition: hydrogen bonds
    are weak forces that act between adjacent molecules and between atoms within a large molecule.
  44. Definition: molecular weight
    is the sum of the atomic weights of its component atoms.
  45. Definition: ph
    is the measurement of acidity and basicity in a solution.
  46. Definition: neutral ph
    a solution with a ph of 7; it contains equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxide ions.
  47. Definition: acidic ph
    a solution with a ph balance below 7; it contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions.
  48. Definition: basic ph
    a solution with a ph balance above 7; it contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
  49. Definition: steroid
    are large lipid molecules that share a distinctive carbon framework.
  50. Definition: sex cell
    also known as germ cells or reproductive cells, are either the sperm in males or the oocytes in females.
  51. Definition: somatic cells
    all cells in the human body, with the exception of the sex cells.
  52. Definition: diffusion
    the movement of solutes; direction is determined by relative concentrations.
  53. Definition: osmosis
    the movement of water molecules toward solution containing relatively higher solute concentration
  54. Definition: hypotonic
    water flows into cell; causing swelling and rupture
  55. Definition: hypertonic
    water flows out of cell; causing dehydration and crenation
  56. Definition: endocytosis
    is the process by which cells absorb molecules from outside the cell by engulfing them with their cell membrane.
  57. Definition: exocytosis
    is the process by which cells directs the contents of secretory vesicles out of the cell membrane.
  58. Definition: mitosis
    it seperates the duplicated chsomosomes of a celll into two identical nuclei.
  59. Definition: cancer
    an illness caused by mutations leading to the controlled growth and replication of affected cells.
  60. Definition: benign tumor
    a mass or swelling in which the cells usually remain within a connective-tissue capsule; rarely life threatening.
  61. Definition: dextran
    a carbohydrate that cannot cross plasma membranes; commonly administered in solution to patients after blood loss or dehydration.
  62. Definition: DNA fingerprinting
    identifying an individual on the basis of repeating nucleotide sequences in his or her DNA.
  63. Definition: invasion
    the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor into surrounding tissues.
  64. Definition: malignant tumor
    a mass or swelling in which the cells no longer respond to normal control mechanisms, but divide rapidley.
  65. Definition: metastasis
    the spread of malignant cells into distant tissues and organs, where secondary tumors subsequently develop.
  66. Definition: normal saline
    a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution that approximates the normal osmotic concentration of extracellular fluids.
  67. Definition: oncogene
    a cancer-causing gene created by a somatic mutation in a normal gene involved with growth, differentiation, or cell division.
  68. Definition: primary tumor
    also know as primary neoplasm, the mass of cells in which a cancer cell intially developed.
  69. Definition: secondary tumor
    a colony of cancerous cells formed by metastasis.
  70. Definition: tumor
    neoplasm, a mass produced by abnormal cell growth and division.
Card Set
AP1 Exam 1