Exam 3: RR (2)

  1.                                                               i.      when proteins with __carry out its normal function, it exhibits a __
    1.      determining the precise nature of the deficiency provides information on the function of the normal protein
    • mutations 
    • characteristic deficiency
  2.                                                               i.      Use of yeast: vesicles bud from the __and travel to the __ where they fuse with the __
    1.      to identify genes and their involvement in the __, screening for mutant cells exhibiting abnormal distributions of __ is done
    • ER 
    • Golgi complex
    • Golgi cisternae
    • secretory pathway
    • cytoplasmic membranes
  3.                                                               i.      Researchers have isolated dozens of different mutants which, taken as a group, exhibit disruptions in virtually every step of the __
    1.      the genes responsible for these defects have been cloned and sequenced, and the proteins they encode have been isolated, which allow searching for __
    • secretory pathway
    • homologous proteins
  4.                                                               i.      one of the most important lessons: dynamic activities  of the __ are highly conserved
    1.      similar proteins are used
    a.      __ of cells belies their underlying molecular similarities
                                                                                                                                          i.      in many cases, proteins from widely divergent species are __
    • endomembrane system
    • structural diversity
    • interchangeable
  5.                                                               i.      researchers interested in searching for genes that affect a particular cellular process in plant or animal cells have used __
    1.      cells produce __ that bind to specific __and inhibit the __of these __into proteins
    a.      each mRNA represents the __; therefore, one can find which genes are involved in a particular process by determining which __interfere with that process
    • RNA interference
    • small RNAs (siRNAs)
    • mRNAs 
    • translation 
    • mRNAs 
    • expression of a specific gene
    • siRNAs
  6. 1.      of the 130 different __ that were found to interfere in some way with the __, 31 of them generated a phenotype similar to the __that has caused the fluorescent enzyme to remain in the ER, which has fused with the Golgi membranes
    • siRNAs 
    • secretory pathway
    • siRNA
  7.                                                               i.      because it is easier to synthesize a __ than to generate an organism with a mutant gene, __has become a common strategy to investigate the effect of a missing protein
    • small RNA
    • RNAi
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Exam 3: RR (2)