Ap world chapter 25 vocab

  1. Toussaint L’Overture
    Leader of the slave rebellion on the French island of St. Domingue in 1791; led to the creation of the independent republicof Haiti in 1804.
  2. Mask of Ferdinand:
    Term given to the movements in Latin America allegedly loyal to the deposed Bourbon king of Spain; they actually were Creole movements for independence.
  3. Miguel de Hidalgo:
    Mexican priest who established an independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; after early victories he was captured and executed.
  4. Augustín Iturbide:
    Conservative Creole officer in the Mexican army who joined the independence movement; made emperor in 1821.
  5. Simon Bolívar:
    Creole military officer in northern South America; won victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822 that led to the independent state of Gran Colombia.
  6. Gran Colombia:
    Existed as an independent state until 1830 when Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate independent nations.
  7. José de San Martín:
    Leader of movements in Rio de la Plata that led to the independence of the United Republic of Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movements in Chile and Peru.
  8. João VI:
    Portuguese monarch who fled the French to establish his court in Brazil from 1808 to 1820; Rio de Janeiro became the real capital of the Portuguese empire.
  9. Pedro I:
    Son and successor of João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor.
  10. José Rodríguez de Francia:
    Ruler of independent Paraguay as dictator until 1840.
  11. Andrés Santa Cruz:
    Mestizo general who established a union between independent Peru and Bolivia between 1829 and 1839.
  12. Caudillos:
    Leaders in independent Latin America who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government.
  13. Centralists:
    Latin American politicians who favored strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by conservative politicians.
  14. Federalists:
    Latin American politicians who favored regional governments rather than centralized administrations; often supported by liberal politicians.
  15. Monroe Doctrine:
    United States declaration of 1823, which stated that any attempt by a European country to colonize the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act.
  16. Guano:
    Bird droppings used as fertilizer; a major Peruvian export between 1850 and 1880.
  17. Positivism:
    A philosophy based on the ideas of Auguste Comte; stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.
  18. Antonio López de Santa Anna:
    Mexican general who seized power after the collapse of the Mexican republic in 1835.
  19. Manifest Destiny:
    Belief that the United States was destined torule from the Atlantic to the Pacific
  20. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848):
    Treaty between the United States and Mexico; Mexico lost one-half of national territory.
  21. Benito Juárez:
    Indian lawyer and politician who led a liberal revolution against Santa Anna; defeated by the French, who made Maximilian emperor; returned to power from 1867 to 1872.
  22. La Reforma:
    Name of Juárez’s liberal revolution.
  23. Maximilian von Habsburg:
    Austrian archduke proclaimed emperor of Mexico as a result of French intervention in 1862; after the French withdrawal he was executed in 1867.
  24. Gauchos:
    Mounted rural workers in the Rio de la Plata region.
  25. Juan Manuel de Rosas:
    Federalist leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.
  26. Argentine Republic:
    Replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862 as aresult of a compromise between centralists and federalists
  27. Domingo F. Sarmiento:
    Liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade and launched reforms in education and transportation.
  28. Fazendas:
    Coffee estates that spread into the Brazilian interior between 1840 and 1860; caused intensification of slavery.
  29. Modernization theory:
    The belief that the more industrialized, urban, and modern a society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned or transformed.
  30. Dependency theory:
    The belief that development and underdevelopment were not stages but were part of the same process; that development and growth of areas like western Europe were achieved at the expense of underdevelopment of dependent regions like Latin America.
  31. Porfirio Díaz:
    One of Juárez’s generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876 and dominated politics for 35 years.
  32. Cientificos:
    Advisors to Díaz’s government who were influenced strongly by positivist ideas.
  33. Spanish American War:
    Fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898; resulted in annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines; permitted American intervention in the Caribbean.
  34. Panama Canal:
    The United States supported an independence movement in Panama, then part of Colombia, in return for the exclusive rights for a canal across the Panamanian isthmus.
  35. Auguste Comte:
    19th-century French philosopher; founder of positivism, a philosophy that stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.
  36. Mexican-American War:
    Fought between Mexico and the United States from 1846 to 1848; led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces and loss of about one-half of Mexico’s national territory to the United States.
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Ap world chapter 25 vocab