Health & First Aid

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  1. How long should new or sick horses be isolated?
    10 days
  2. What is first aid?
    care given immediately to prevent the problem from getting worse and promote rapid return to normal
  3. How do you determine what is normal for your horse?
    • take multiple measurements over a period of time
    • establish a baseline
  4. What is TPR?
    • temperature
    • pulse
    • respiration
  5. What can cause a change in body temperature?
    • infection
    • exercise
    • stress
  6. normal temperature:
    99-101 F
  7. abnormal temperature:
    below 99 F or above 102 F
  8. newborn temp:
    102 F
  9. What could cause a change in pulse?
    • exercise
    • anxiety
    • endocrine response
  10. normal resting pulse:
    25-48 beats per minute
  11. abnormal resting pulse:
    above 60 beats per minute
  12. foal pulse:
    up to 60 beats per minute
  13. Where can you take the pulse?
    • facial artery
    • apex of barrel
    • digital artery
  14. What can cause an increase in respiration?
    systemic response to infection or injury
  15. normal resting respiration:
    8-20 breaths per minute
  16. abnormal resting respiration:
    above 30 breaths per minute
  17. Where can you measure respiration?
    • flank area
    • nostrils (not ideal)
    • trachea with stethoscope
  18. What can cause a change in gum color?
    • sickness
    • dehydration
    • loss of circulation (light)
    • toxicity (dark)
    • red/yellow: jaundice
    • grey: shock
  19. What is the normal capillary refill time?
    less than 2 seconds
  20. What does the skin hydration test measure?
    amount of fluid in the body
  21. Why is skin hydration important?
    can indicate colic or dehydration
  22. How to correctly wrap:
    • start in the middle, move down and then back up
    • wrap front to back
  23. Where can you give IM shots?
    • injection triangle in the neck
    • pectoral muscles
    • thigh muscles (butt)
  24. Where is the injection triangle?
    • in front of the shoulder
    • above the cervical vertebrae
    • below the crest of the neck
  25. What are the three classifications of horses?
    • Home-body (stay on property)
    • Traveler (competition horses)
    • Mares/foals
  26. Vaccines are based on:
    • geographical areas
    • classification of horse
  27. What vaccines does the home-body need?
    • Tetanus Typhoid
    • Encephalomyelitis
    • West Nile Virus Encephalitis
  28. What is Encephalomyelitis? Symptoms? Types?
    • inflammation of brain tissue
    • sluggish or still, muscle twitching, jerking
    • Eastern, Western, Venezuelan
  29. What vaccines does the Traveler need?
    • Tetanus Typhoid
    • Encephalomyelitis
    • West Nile Virus Encephalitis
    • Equine Influenza
    • Rhinopneumonitis (Rhino virus)
    • Potomac Horse Fever (north)
  30. How can equine influenza vaccine be given?
    • intra-muscular annually
    • intra-nasal every 6 months
  31. What is the rhino virus?
    • upper respiratory infection
    • given annually
  32. What is Potomac Horse Fever?
    • similar to salmonella
    • causes rapid dehydration
    • common in the northeast
    • carried by mosquitoes
  33. What is Strangles? symptoms?
    • infection in lymph nodes that can abcess out under the jaw
    • runny nose, lethargic, highly contagious
  34. How is the strangles vaccine administered?
    • given mostly to young horses (weanlings-2 years) and horses that are in frequent contact
    • intra-muscular: 4 doses over 12 months
    • intra-nasal: 6-9 months of age and booster 3 weeks later
  35. What vaccines do broodmares get?
    • EHV-1 Rhino Virus Vaccine @ 5,7 and 9 months of gestation
    • open mares get it prior to breeding
  36. What vaccines do foals get if the mare was not vaccinated?
    • Tetanus, West Nile, Encephalymyelitis @ 3 months
    • Influenza and Rhino @ 6 months
  37. What vaccines do foals get if the mare was vaccinated?
    Tetanus, West Nile, Encephalomyelitis , Influenza and Rhino @ 5-6 months (series)
  38. What is coggins? symptoms?
    • similar to HIV, doesn't go away
    • no cure and no vaccine
    • lethargic, anemic, prone to sickness
    • can be carried by horse & deer flies
  39. What are the three main symptoms of parasite infestation?
    • unthriftiness
    • rough hair coat
    • decreased appetite
  40. What are ascarids?
    • can be picked up through water
    • can migrate through intestinal wall to other organs
    • adults lives inside the animal
    • ex: roundworms and parascaris equorum
  41. What are strongyles?
    • cause ulcers and colic-like symptoms
    • can mature rapidly in 2 months or stay inside intestinal walls for up to 2 years
    • hard to eradicate and can live in soil for long periods
    • large: sit in small intestine
    • small: sit in large intestine
    • ex: bloodworms, large strongyles, small strongyles
  42. What are bots?
    • cause lethargic, teeth grinding and tail rubbing
    • take 8-10 months to develop
    • cluster and attach to stomach and can cause ulcers as they pass through
    • fly uses the horse to develop eggs
  43. What are tapeworms?
    • can cause impactions and cause colic in older horses
    • some horses don't show symptoms
    • low frequency of infestation
  44. How often should horses be dewormed?
    • adult horses: 2-6 times a year
    • young horses: monthly
  45. When should horses be wormed?
    • about 4 times a year
    • March, May, September, December
  46. Why should types of wormers be rotated?
    keep parasites from building immunity
  47. When is the most effective time to administer wormer?
    • when they're resting
    • before eating
  48. What are the 4 chemical classes of dewormers?
    • Benzimidazoles
    • Macrocyclic Lactones
    • Pyrantels
    • Organophosphates
  49. Pyrantels:
    • target tapeworms with double/triple doses
    • they attack the neurological functions and paralyze the worm
  50. Macrocyclic Lactones:
    • invermectins
    • treat bots
    • attack neuro functions and paralyze worm
    • ex:zimectrin
  51. Benzimidazoles:
    • affect nutrient uptake
    • starve the worm
    • ex:safeguard
  52. Organophosphates:
    target bots
  53. What external parasites affect horses?
    • ticks
    • lice
    • mites
    • mosquitos
    • flies
  54. Where do tape worms originate from?
  55. How can external parasites be controlled?
    • sprays
    • flies can be controlled with fans
Card Set
Health & First Aid
test 2
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