Historically how were families structured?
What were the roles of children?
- fam: father ruled(patriarchal)
- privacy(no outside intervention)
- self sufficency & isolation
- dependancy was unacceptable
- CHILDREN: seen as assets or expenses, could be abandoned, beaten or trafficked if you could not work
- Corporal/physical punishment was the norm
In what ways were children treated as chattel
- seen as assets or expenses
- families do with them as they saw fit
What was the role of physical/corporal "discipline"?
- Seen as the norm
- went unquestioned
What were early means of handling abandoned, orphaned or maltreated children?
- forced/indentured labor
- i.e. poorhouses
- houses of refuge? trainign schools
- Orphan trains
How did the orphan trains demonstrate early attempts at helping children?
- sent abused, maltreated, homeless children to develop farms out west with U.S. Christian farmers "for a better life"
- emphasis on work
What child was the first to be removed from the home? When?
Mary Ellen Wilson (1874)
Who came up with the battered child syndrome? When? Why was this important
- (1962) Henry Kempe
- presented as a condition vs parental explanation
- entrenched abuse as a social problem
What law solidified the need to respond to child maltreatment? When? What did it do?
- (1974) Child Abuse Prevention & Treatment Act
- the 1st federal law that recog. child abuse as a social problem
- CPS is required in every state
Why do we focus on family (dynamics, stressors, structure) in this class?
- major social, legal, cultural institution
- Primary source of child rearing->riskiest place for kids
- Children are at greastest harm w/ family rather than strangers
- relational distance & interpersonal victimization are correlated
How is family defined for our purposes in this class?
- Group of people who live together(or at least have regular contact) who are expected to perform special functions
- in this case Child rearing
4 sources/triggers of family problems/dysfunctiin
- basic family needs/tasks
- failure to deal with developmental changes (new child)
- crisis(financial, environmental, health)
- societal/cultural pressures (immigrants, child labor, early marriage)
What 2 parenting styles illustrate common char. of maltreatment?
- conflicting parent child relationsill equipped
- use child to fill void
- parentification: older child takes on role of parent (neglect common)
- Unreasonable expectationsIdealization-sees things greatly
- Unreasonable expectations (abuse common)
How is healthy dev. impacted by maltreatment? Think about the various stages of dev. identify healthy vs. stunted dev in each
- prenatal care,preparation (Prematurity,underdev.)
- Birth-age 1
- bonding/attachment social support(failure to thrive, weight gain, crawling) communicative delays
- ages 1-4
- overall dev & boundry testing
- antisocial, delayed cog. skills
- Ages 4-8overall dev, social competence
- lack boundries, hyper vigilance, sexual acting out
- Ages 8-12intellectual, physical, and social dev.
- parentification, hyper sexualized outcast, prob @school
- Adolescenceoverall dev & rebellion
- self esteem, body image, guilt, traumatic sexualization,anger
What is non-organic failure to thrive?
- doesn't know how to play
- interacting with others
3 primary means of adaptation for maltreated children?
- Antisocial:maladaptation targeted at others(violence, delinquency)
- self-injurous: maladaptation targeted at self (substance abuse, cutting,eating disorders
- Pro-social(resilience) healthy adaptation ability to overcome fears (school, athletics)
What is resilence and what factors encourage it?
- temperament and personality: good attitude, problem solving
- Edu: talents/interest, scholastic success
- Social support: peers, mentors, coaches
- Ethnic& Cultural Id: Community, historical education
What are some of the long term effects of childhood maltreatment?
failed relationships, mental issues(depression, anxiety), unsure of parenting styles, spirtual(lost faith),emotions,health(disease, injury, eating disorder)
Why is difficult for survivors to disclose?
you must've misinterpeted, you mustv'e wanted it, get over it your an adult, your just trying to get them in trouble, thats in the past, your'e just making excuses
How does the Boys and Men Healing video illustrate long term effects
- self blame, guilt
- afraid to disclose
- tony lost his spirituality , always in trouble for fighting failed relationships etc(hard time trusting men).
How does federal law define child maltreatment?
"any recent act of or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical harm or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm."
What are the statistical trends related to maltreatment?
- 681,000 kids/yr.
- -79% neglect
- -18% physical abuse
- -9% sexual abuse
What is neglect? what are the major categories ? & examples
- act of ommission-depriving child of somthing they need by someone with care, control of child
- physical (hygeine,food, shelter)
- medical( failure to provide app. healthcare)
- edu: truancy
- psych: denying nuturing, denial of touch/ comfort
What is phys. abuse? & what actions are considered phys. abusive
- act of comission- non -accidental or threatened imminent risk
- actions: slap, shove, kicking->burning, strangling, shooting
what is psych. maltreatment? how does it cross the abuse-neglect dichotomy
- least tangible form of abuse
- patterned destructive beh.
- what harms a child through behavior
5 patterned destructive behaviors related to psych. maltreatment?
- corruption-exposing to illegal activities(drugs)
- isolation- closing child off geograph. or having friends
- rejection: making them feel unwanted, never born
- terrozing: making them believe fearful things are actually true(monsters)
- ignoring: often non-verbal behav. pretend as if they are not there
what types of considerations go into defining what is abuse/neglect and what isn't? Difference btwn. intentional harm & unfortunate accidents
- multiple injuries (diff. stages of healing)
- location of injuries
- identifiable marks -severity
- various reporters
- explanation v. presentation
what types of maltreatment were illustrated in the Broken child video
- physical abuse, neglect
- mom w mental illness ->neglect->cycle ofabuse
- substance abuse psych. (witness father murder)
- sexual abuse(prostitiution)
why is domestic violence relevant to to child maltreatment?
seeing domestic violence is equal to being exposed to abuse.
How are adult batters and adult victims affected in their parenting?
- "performs well in public"
- authoritarian style
- under involved
- undermines other parent, manipulative
- Victimwell meaning
- neglectful,monopolized energy
- neglectful "failure to protect"
what is failure to protect
endangering child by exposing them to dangerous situations.
What is child sexual abuse? Range of actions
- use of a child for sexual gratification, financial gain & or establishment of power.
- viewing, touching,penetration, exploitation
what is the diff. btwn extra familial and intrafamilial abuse?
- Intra-in (incest)
- extra-(outside of family)
what is the known about the prev., differences, and similarities, btwn. male and female victims?
female victims typically older, more like interfamilial, longer duration, more likely to tell
opposite for guys.
What is the profile of child sexual abuse perps?
- 90% male
- 50-70% victimized as children
- may be an outcast and lack self esteem
- sense of powerlessness
- may live double life
- stunted social & sexual dev.
- unhealthy adult relationships
what is pedophilia, clergy abuse, ICP, and trafficking?
- pedophilia: sexual intrest in children..many victims over many yrs (will not stop)
- Clergy: most associated with catholic preist, power and authority(deliver them from evil)
- ICP(Internet child porn.): collecters(stash of kidde porn, travelers(use internet to find minors) manufactors(produce material) chatters(chat sexually w kids)
- trafficking:modern slavery "acquisition of ppl by improper means such as force, fraud, or deception
what is known about the prev. of sex trafficking(into U.S, worldwide & domestically)
- worldwide-680,000 9% of substantiated cases
- coming into U.S.- 14,500-17,500
- domestic- 100-300,000
what are the gender and age trends of trafficked victims
- mostly female (80%)
- 50% minors
what are the 5 phases of sexual abuse
- engagement:(set-up): access, gauging, grooming(testing boundries)
- pressured sex-tricked, entrapment
- forced sex- threats, physical restraint
- sexual interaction: actual illegal behavior
- secrecy: manipulation, threats, ensures continued abuse
- Disclosure: intentional or unintentional
- Suppression: pressure to recant, stigma, conseq.
How are the 5 phases illustrated in Bastard of Carolina
How is the title BASTARD significant to the storyline? What roles do character play in abuse (think mother,step-father, and aunts?)
What forms of maltreatment did ann browning experience?
- neglect by mother , psych. abuse (not being held, nurtured) interfamilial
- Sexual by clergy and friends dad- extra familial
What did Ann browning mean by catholicism being a culture not just a religion, how did this factor into her abuse
- Catholicism is a big part of her life, her family lived their life in the church and it was engrained in their upbringing.
- The fact that a priest was befriending ann was a good thing in her family eyes. They were proud to see this occurring and encouraged it. The priest could do no wrong in their eyes, which left ann exposed to abuse. even when she told her mom she said you probably misunderstood. A priest would never do that.