Block B week 1-3

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  1. Name the following plane
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    Image Upload 2axial=transverse
  2. Name the 3 bony part of the thorax and their component
    • Sternum (Manubrium, body and xiphoid)
    • Ribs (7 true ribs, 3 false ribs and 2 floating ribs)
    • Thorasic vertebarae ( T1-T12, one for each ribs)
  3. Name the followint parts of the T vertebrae
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  4. Name the following part of the rib
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  5. Name the 3 principal types of joint and their subtypes
    • 1.cartillaginous 
    • -primary (synchondrosis) hyaline acrtillage, periosteum
    • -secondary (symphysis) Fibrocartillage
    • 2.Firbous
    • -syndesmosis
    • 3.synovial
  6. Name the following parts
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  7. Name the following parts
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  8. Name the following parts
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  9. Name the following parts
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  10. Name the principal etiological agent of pulmonary crcinoma
    • -mineral
    • -tobacco smoke
    • -chemicals
    • -radiation
  11. what cause a greater incidence in lung carcinoma?
  12. Name the principal oncogenic minerals, chemical and radiation
    • -Asbestos (dose related, multiplicative risk)
    • -arsenic,nickel, silica,¸chromium,cadmium

    -Chloromethyl, methyl ether,polycyclic, aromatic hydrocarbons, mustard gas

    -radon, uranium and other mines
  13. What king od information do we get from a KRAS mutated lung cancer?
    • -patient probably  a smoker
    • -It is an adverse predictive factor
    • -There may be a lack of benefit from TKI treatment
  14. What kind of information do we get from a EGFR mutated lung cancer
    • -Patient probably a non smoker
    • -east asian woman
    • -adenocarcinoma (bronchioalveolar)
    • -Exon 19 and 21 predict response to TKI
  15. What kind of information do we get from a ALK mutated lung cancer?
    • -About 2-5% of NSCLC
    • -Adenocarcinoma
    • -high response and progression free survival with critoztinib
  16. What are the squamous cell carcinoma pathological characteristics
    • -proximal (lombar, segmental airways)
    • -intraluminal popypoid growth
    • -obstructive pneumonitis
    • -central necrosis and cavitation
    • -better differentiated form tend to be linked to the thorax
    • -frequent subtype in superior sulcus
  17. What are the small cell carcinoma's pathological characteristics and microscopic appearance
    • -Proximal (main, lobar) airways
    • -subucosa infiltration with compression
    • -regional lymph node and visceral metastases

    -small cells, high N/C ratio and dispersed chromatin
  18. What are the large cell carcinoma's pathological characteristics and microscopique appearance
    • -Peripheral large
    • -well circumscribed
    • -necrosis

    -large cells with no evidence of differentiation
  19. What is the most frequent cause of cancer death?
    Lung cancer
  20. what% of patient present themselve with advanced or metastatic lung cancer?
  21. what is the 5 years survival in different lung cancer patient's desease stage?
    • 1A:74% 1B:58%
    • 2A:46% 2B:36%
    • 3A:24% 3B:9%
    • 4:-
  22. what % of lung cancer death is caused by cigarette?
  23. What type of lung cancer is strongly associated with smoking?
    SCLC (98% due to smoking)
  24. Name some occupational cause of lung cancer
    • asbestos boiler and pipe insulation
    • Arsenic, formely used in pesticide
    • Bis(chloromethyl)ether, used in pesticid
    • cadmium, metal plating, electronics
    • chromium, used in alloys and metal plating
    • crystaline silica, sand blasting, stone cutting
    • mustard gas
    • nickel in nickel rafining
    • radon progeny, mining
    • soots, tars, and mineral oil inducstry
  25. Define the effect of asbestos+smoking
    • multiplicative effects on th risk of lung cancer devellopement
    • toghether they increase the rick of lung cancer by 20-50 times
    • there is a lag period of 20-30 years in cancer devellopement
  26. what is the goal and problem in lung cancer screening?
    • Reduce disease specific mortality.
    • survival data is misleading due to kead time bias
  27. what kind of lung cancer have neuro-endocrine features?
  28. Name the most common type of cancer in decroissant order
    • Adenocarcinoma (30,7%)
    • squamous cell (30%)
    • Large cell (9,4%)
    • Adenosquamous, carcinoid and others (2.5%)
    • mixed NSCLC/SCLC treated has SCLC
  29. Define the caracteristic of SCLC
    • almost exclusively in smoker
    • Central tumours, originating within the brobchial wall
    • characterized by by hillar and mediastinal node involvement and early distant metastase
    • carries the worst prognostic of all the types the types of lung cancer
  30. Define the caracteritics of Adenocarcinoma
    • tend to happen in the periphery of the lung
    • most common cancer in non-smoker
    • can mimic pleumonia on CXR by spreading on alveolar wall
    • can devellop in old sac ''scarcarcinoma''
    • tend to spread to nodes and distantly
    • intermediate prognosis between squamous cell and small cell
  31. Define te caracteristic of squamous cell lung cancer
    • tend to arise in central location
    • tendency to cavitate on CXR
    • spread to local structure, then nodes
    • can be associated with hypercalcemia
    • Best relative prognosis
  32. Define the caracteristic of large lung cll carcinoma
    • Location usually peripheral but variable
    • behavior similar to adenocarcinoma spread to nodes and distantly
  33. name Lung cancer Loco regional symptoms
    • Cough, chest pain,hemoptusis, neck nodes, hoarsenessn(recurent larhyngial nerve), swallowing problem
    • SVCO syndrome: facial swelling, collateral veins
    • pancast syndrome: hand or arm pain from brachial plexus involvement, hornmers
    • dyspnea from pleural or pericardiale effusions
  34. Name the paraneoplastic symptoms in lung cancer
    • SCLC: sushing's syndrome
    • NSCLC:hypercalcemia, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and clubbing, and dermatomyositis
  35. Name the disseminated desease symptom in lung cancer
    • weight loss, bony pain,headache
    • soft tissu masses
    • skeletal symptoms
    • foca neurologic deficits
  36. Name the hematological desease symptoms in lung cancer.
    Thrombophlebitis and thromboembolic disease
  37. What are the source of false positive and false negative in Lung cancer pet scan?
    • False positive: inflammatory lesion
    • False negative: bronchioalveolar cell, carcinoids less than 1cm
  38. Define the treatment for the diffrent stage of NSCLC
    • 1A: surgery alors/RT alone
    • 1B:surgery/ +- CT
    • 2A/B: surgery+CT
    • 3A: CT+RT +- surgery
    • 3B:CT+-RT
    • 4:CT vs best supportive care
  39. Deine the treatment for SCLC
    • limited disease:chemotherapy and radiation
    • extensive disease: chemotherapy
  40. Name the following parts

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  41. Name some cause and consequence of pleuritis
    • Pleura is inflamme
    • Parieltal pleural is sensitive
    • pneumothorax (spontaneous or injury)
    • hemothorax:blood in the area
  42. name the following parts

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  43. What are the following term?
    the primitive gut with the BPM opening into the  FG , MG and the more caudal  HG which ends in the cloacal membrane
    • buccopharyngeal membrane
    • forgut
    • midgut
    • hindgut
  44. Complete the sentence
    _______ beginning at the BPM (4th week) progresses to recanalize the gut at about the _____ week when the ________ is opened allowing amniotic fluid to circulate through the canalized gut into the _______.
    Apoptosis beginning at the BPM (4th week) progresses to recanalize the gut at about the 7th week when the cloacal membrane is opened allowing amniotic fluid to circulate through the canalized gut into the amniotic cavity.
  45. Name the following structure
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    • 1.septum transversum (mésenchyme)
    • 2.pleuro-peritoneal membrane
    • 3.Muscle ( derived from cervical myotome)
    • 4.msentary of the oesophagus
    • A:aorta O:oesophagus IVC:Inferior vena cava
Card Set
Block B week 1-3
Block B
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