Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 2

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  1. Sperm
    Male sex gamete, smallest cell with a flagellum
  2. Flagellum
    Tails that allow cells to swim, and grant movement in liquids.
  3. Ovum
    Human egg in reproduction
  4. Cytoplasm
    Material that fills the cell cavity allowing a place for organelles to float around
  5. Flagella
    Tails that allow cells to swim, and grant movement in liquids.
  6. Vesicle
    Organelles mini organs in a cell
  7. Nucleus
    Organelle that contains the DNA of the cell.
  8. Nucleous
    specialized region of the nucleus to help manufacture proteins
  9. Plasma
    Fluid in a cell where organelles rest.
  10. DNA
    Chemical compound that forms the genetic composition of an organism
  11. Chromosome
    Rod shaped bodies that contain genes in cell division
  12. Receptors
    Specific molecules that receive chemical messages for the target cell
  13. Target Cells
    Cells that respond to the signals that are being sent
  14. Gene
    A unit of hereditary information
  15. Cilia
    Hairlike organelles that allow the cell to move materials outside the cell
  16. Smooth ER
    Steroid, phospholipid and fatty acid synthesis. Breaks down toxic chemicals.
  17. Rough ER
    Holds the ribosomes of the cell
  18. Ribosomes
    Site of manufacturing proteins
  19. Lysosomes
    Organelles that break down dead organelles and destroy bacteria
  20. Golgi Complex
    Protein processing and packaging plant
  21. Mitochondria
    Carries out cellular respiration to produce energy for the cells function.
  22. Free Radicals
    Electrons that become a toxic by product of cellular respiration
  23. Cellular Respiration
    Process that breaks down fuel molecules in order to release the energy in them
  24. Selectively permeable
    Membrane allows certain materials to pass through, and prevents other materials from passing through.
  25. Osmosis
    Passage of water through a selectively permeable membrane that moves from a high concentration to a low concentration.
  26. Diffusion
    Movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration
  27. Filtration
    Passage of materials through a membrane by mechanical pressure
  28. Active Transport
    Moving materials from a low concentration to a higher concentration (uses energy)
  29. Phagocytosis
    Cell engulfs materials by surrounding them with a portion of its membrane (active transport)
  30. Hormones
    Released chemicals used to regulate metabolism
  31. Interphase
    Stasis, in between acts of division (mitoses).
  32. Prophase
    First stage of mitosis: Chromatin comes together to form chromosome pairs (chromatids)
  33. Metaphase
    Second stage of mitosis: Chromatids are positioned along the cells equator
  34. Anaphase
    Third stage of mitosis: Chromatids divide, and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell
  35. Telephase
    Fourth stage of mitosis: Chromosomes form two nuclei and the cell membrane constricts forming two daughter cells
  36. Stratified
    Composed of one layer of cells
  37. Squamous
    Epithelial cell: Flat cells shaped like pancakes
  38. Cuboidal
    Epithelial cell: Short cylinders that are cubed from the side
  39. Columnar
    Epithelial cell: Column shaped, thin and tall, nucleus is generally on the bottom
  40. Goblet Cells
    Unicellular gland that secrets mucus
  41. Connective Tissues
    Join other tissues in the body together. Provides support and protection
  42. Adipose Tissues
    Tissues that store fat and release it when the body needs energy
  43. Muscles Tissues
    Tissues that are designed to contract, used for locomotion
  44. Cardiac Tissues
    Tissues that form the walls of the heart
  45. Epithelial Tissues(Simple and Stratified)
    Tissue that lines the cavities in the body: Simple is one layer, Stratified is multiple
  46. Mucous Membranes
    Lines body cavities that open to the outside (digestive tract) secretes mucus to remain moist
  47. Serous Membranes
    Lines cavities that do not open to outside (abdominalpelvic)
  48. Hypertonic Solution
    Solution where solute concentration is greater than that of the cell, causing dehydration
  49. Smooth Muscle
    Involuntary muscles; that are not striated.
  50. Adipose Cells
    Fat Cells
  51. Axons
    Transmits information away from the cell body
  52. Collagen Fibers
    Fibers that give the body structures strength. Most numerous of the fibers
  53. Dendrites
    Cells specialized for receiving impulses
  54. Parietal Peritoneum
    Serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
Card Set
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 2
Vocabulary based on Chapter 2 of Anatomy and Physiology.
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