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Which breed prohibits AI?
Which vaccinations should be administered prior to breeding?
Core: tetanus, eastern and western encephalomyelitis, west nile virus encephalomyelitis, rabies
Non core: influenza, equine herpes virus (rhinopnemonitis), equine viral arteritis, equine strepococcus equi (strangles)
Reproductive history is part of a breeding soundness exam, what questions should be asked?
- has a heat cycle been observed? when?
- interval between heat cycles
- length of estrus cycles
- breeding dates
- previous foaling dates
- abnormal/ assisted foalings
- # of previous pregnancies
- # of breedings for conception
- A) Uterine horn
- B) Oviduct
- C) Infundibulum
- D) Broad ligament
- E) Cervix
- F) Vagina
- G) Vulva
- H) Uterine body
The ovaries can be examined via rectal and ultrasound evaluation. What are we looking for in these exams?
- presence of follicles (number and size)
- Abnormal follicles
The uterine horns and body can be examined via rectal and ultrasound. What are we looking for in these exams?
- Foreign bodies
What structures are examined in the vaginal exam?
Name three diagnostic tests that can be done or submitted to the lab as part of a breeding soundness exam.
- Uterine culture
- Uterine cytology
- Uterine biopsy
The mare has a normal biologic breeding system from late March to ________
Describe the natural seasonality of the mare.
Dec, Jan, Feb: Anovulatory season
Mar, April: Spring Transition
May-Sep: Natural breeding season
Oct, Nov: Fall Transition
Describe the typical lighting regimen in changing the cycle of the mare.
- 16 hrs light / 8 hrs darkness
- 100-200- watt incandescent or two 40-watt fluorescent bulbs = 170 lux
- 12x12 box stall
- 45-60 days to promote estrous activity
How does lighting change the estrous cycle: (what happens normally when there are shorter days?)
- With shorter days, melatonin is secreted from the pineal gland in the brain.
- Melatonin supresses GnRH production from the hypothalamus
Why is GnRH important in the estrous cycle?
GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH & LH.
How does lighting change the estrous cycle? (what happens when mares are exposed to more light?)
Longer day length is perceived by pineal gland which decreases melatonin production, so GnRH can be produced to stimlate release of FSH & LH from the anterior pituitary.
________ is produced during follicle growth and causes changes to the uterus, cervix, and vagina.
What happens once ovulation occurs that provides negative feedback to the hypothalamus?
A corpus luteum forms at the site and progesterone is produced.
If conception occurs and a pregnancy begins, progesterone from the ___ will maintain the pregnancy until formation of the _______ _____, which then takes over progesterone production.
If conception does not occur, the CL will regress in ___-___ days and a new follicle will begin developing.
What are three purposes progesterone therapy?
- Suppress return to estrus (keep out of heat)
- Maintain pregnancy
- Part of placentitis regimen
What is the generic name for Regu-Mate
What route is Regu-Mate (Altrenogest) given, how often?
- Oral preparation
- Daily, dosed by weight
T/F: Regu-Mate is approved for use in food animals.
Regumate may be used as a _______ hormone in embryo transfer
Injectable forms of progestin are typically _____ based.
List an example of an injectable progestin product.
What is the primary use in prostaglandin therapy?
Lysis of the CL
What are some alternate uses for prostaglandin therpay?
- stimulate uterine contractions to control hemorrhage or expel fluid
- induce abortion
What are the two common postaglandins?
- Lutalyse (food animals)
- Prostin (equine)
- * Prostin is seldom used, typically just use Lutalyse
What is an off label use of Lutalyse in small animal medicine?
Tx of pyometra in dogs (resolves about 70% of cases)
What are common side effects of prostaglandins?
- mild colic
How are prostaglandins administered?
What is the generic name for Lutalyse and Prostin?
T/F: Lutalyse has no meat or milk withdrawl
Compare and contrast Estrumate to dinoprost tromethamine.
- Longer half life than DT
- less pronounced side effects than DT
- Both administered IM
- Both are prostagalndins
- Both have no meat or milk withdrawl
What is the generic name for Estrumate?
What are the two FDA approved HCG products? What do these products do?
- Sucromate (deslorelin)
- Stimulate ovulation
Which HCG may be given IV or IM and will induce a follicle >35-38mm to ovulate in 36 hours?
Which ovulatory product is given IM and will induce a follicle > 35mm to ovulate in 48 hours?
What is the main disadvantage of using Chorulon as opposed to Sucromate?
The mare may develop antibodies and become refractory in response to using Chorulon.
Which ovulatory agent is not FDA approved and only available through a compounding pharmacy in Lexington, KY?
Equidone (domperidone) is an oral paste product used for what?
- Fescue toxicosis: only a concern in pregnant mares
- Promote early estrus activity
Equidone must be given for ___-___ days to see a response.
Where can oxytocin come from inside the body?
- ovaries and testes
Uses of oxytocin?
- Stimulate milk letdown
- Uterine smooth muscle contractions
The estrus stage typically lasts how long? What is this phase also called?
- 5-7 days (10-12 days in early breeding season)
- follicular phase
the estrus period ends with ______.
The diestrus period: after ovulation and prior to next estrus is also called what? How long does it last?
- luteal phase
- lasts about 15 days
During diestrus ____________ is elevated.
How long does the embryo stay in the oviduct before entering the uterus?
An initial pregnancy exam can be done at __-__ days. What is the purpose of this exam?
- 12-14 days
- to assess uterine pathology, twins, fluid
When does implantation occur?
When can the fetal heartbeat be observed?
25-30 days post ovulation
What day post ovulation marks the change from "embryo" to "fetus?"
Endometrial cups form and take over progesterone production at __-__ days.
- normal can range from 320-380
The rhinopnemonitis vaccine should be administered when during gestation? What are these vaccines called?
- 3,5,7,9 months.
- Prodigy or Pneumabort
The mare should be removed from fescue sources at least ____ months before foaling.
What does the pre-foaling Vx include? When should this be done?
- Tetanus, EEE, WEE, WNV, Rhino, Flu, Rabies.
- 2-4 weeks pre foaling to booster anitbody levels in the mare's colostrum
What are signs of impending birth? When do they occur?
- Filling of the udder: 2-4 weeks
- Distention of teats: 4-6 days
- Waxing: 1-4 days
- Increase in milk calcium: 1-3 days
- Softening and flattening of the croup muscles
- Relaxation of the vulva
Three ideal conditions for foaling
If foaling in a stall, what size is ideal?
What bedding is preferred when foaling?
Straw, not shavings
Name some supplies to have on hand for foaling?
- Tail wrap
- Bucket, soap, towel or cotton
- Iodine, betadine or chlorheixidine to dip the naval
- Warm fleet enema
The onset of contractions in stage one of labor typically lasts how long?
During the first phase of labor, the foal is being repositioned to where?
through the cervix and into position in the birth canal.
What event marks the transition from stage one and stage two of labor?
Fetal membranes become visible at the mare's vulva.
Delivery should progress within __-__minutes after the membranes rupture.
The placenta should be expelled within
Foal should be born within __-__ mins after the appearance of the allantois; or __-__mins after rupture of the water bag.
30-60 mins; 20-30 mins
The foal should stand and nurse within 2-3 hrs
Naval care and treatment should continue for __-__ days
What should be checked in the first 24hrs after delivery in the mare?
- Vulvar/vaginal area: trauma or discharge
- Rectal temp- may be slightly higher
- Feet- heat and increase in digital pulse