PSC ch. 2

  1. What are the 4 canons that guide scientific research?



  2. Determinism
    the world is orderly and all events have meaningful, systematic causes
  3. Empiricism
    knowledge is based on observation
  4. Parsimony
    the simplest explanation is preferable to more complex ones
  5. Testability
    theories should be testable
  6. What is deductive reasoning?
    Reasoning from general principles to specific instances
  7. What is inductive reasoning?
    Reasoning from specific instances to general principles
  8. What is a conceptual variable?
    Conceptual variables are broad and abstract

    (depression, interpersonal attraction, prejudice)
  9. What is an operational variable?
    The process of transforming abstract concepts into concrete, observable terms

    represent the conceptual variables
  10. What are the 3 types of research design?


  11. What are the advantages of descriptive research?
    Provides detailed portrait of a phenomenon or population

     Allows for further investigation using correlational or experimental designs.
  12. What are the disadvantages of descriptive research?
    Does not tell us anything about what caused the phenomenon 

    Observer bias & expectancy effects
  13. What are the advantages of correlational research?
    study the associations of naturally occurring variables

    study variables that we cannot manipulate (gender, age, socio-economic status, depression)
  14. What are the disadvantages of correlational research?
    Correlation does not equal causation

    There may be a third variable driving the correlation
  15. What are the advantages of experimental research?
    Experiments are the only research design that allow us make causal inferences
  16. What are the disadvantages of experimental research?
    Some variables can not be manipulated (gender)

    other variables are unethical to manipulate (discrimination)
  17. What two components are required to be considered experimental research?

  18. Manipulation
    Manipulate the IV in order to produce different levels (conditions) that will affect the DV 

    The DV is the variable the IV is expected to change

    The DV depends on the IV
  19. Randomization
    placing people in conditions on a completely arbitrary basis (coin-flip).

    Random assignment solves the problem of individual differences

    It equalized groups on every dimension imaginable (assuming the sample size is large).

    IV cause a change in the DV.
  20. Why is it important to use random sampling when choosing research participants?
    Observational studies and studies using random sampling tend have high external validity
  21. What are the 3 types of validity?
    Internal validity

    External validity

    Construct validity
  22. What does internal validity evaluate?
    research provides compelling information about causation (process of causing something to happen or exist)
  23. What does external validity evaluate?
    research provides an accurate description of what happens in the real world
  24. What does construct validity evaluate?
    The extent to which the operational variables represent the conceptual variables
  25. What are the 3 types of reliability?
    Inter-rater reliability

    Internal reliability

    Test-retest reliability (temporal consistency)
  26. What does inter-rater reliability measure?
    The degree to which different judges independently agree on an observation or judgment
  27. What does internal reliability measure?
    The degree to which items in a scale measure the same concept
  28. What does test-retest reliability measure?
    measuring the same person on two (or more) occasions to assess the degree to which a scale correlates positively with itself over time
  29. What are the 3 areas of concern when thinking about the ethics of conducting research?
    The ethics of data collection and analysis  

    The ethical treatment of participants

    The ethics of responsibility to society
  30. What regulatory board reviews research proposals using human subjects? Animal subjects?
    Institutional Review Boards (IRB)

    Institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC)
Card Set
PSC ch. 2
research types and methods