1. What government does or doesn’t do; can be made (or not) by any branch of government, but each branch does this in different ways,
    public policy
  2. finding out what governments do, why they do it, and what difference, if any, it makes.
    policy analysis
  3. policy that provides benefits (rewards) to those who behave in a manner proscribed by an agency. To receive the reward, you need only participate in the program or policy.
    distributive policy
  4. policy that shifts public tax dollars in an attempt to alleviate some form of poverty. It is associated with transferring tax dollars to the poor in some form of voucher payments or other grant BUT, in order to qualify for these programs, the individual must, fit the definition of poor.
    Redistributive policy
  5. Procedural policy takes this form which can be general or protective. They impose a standard of conduct or a method for engaging in a particular profession or occupation.
    regulatory policy
  6. Refers to the "what," specifically, the designation of a good or service that is to be delivered. This policy can be distributive or redistributive in its content. It is written by legislators, Congressional members, or council/board members and takes the form of bills, acts or ordinances.
    substantive policy
  7. This policy refers to the "how" of policy and it is regulatory in nature. It is written by bureaucrats after their agency has been assigned a policy to implement. They are what 'breathe life' into policies and create programs. These policies create directives for providing the goods or service designated in the policy.
    Procedural policy
  8. This policy neither provides benefits or punishes behaviors. It appears in the form of resolutions. Legislators or council members resolve to 'feel' a certain way about some thing, or might recognize through a private bill, some individual for something he or she did. Does nothing "materially"
    Symbolic policy
  9. impose a standard of conduct or a method for engaging in a particular profession or occupation.
    general regulations
  10. are intentionally sought out by certain professions to regulate their occupation.
    protective regulations
  11. resembles the judicial process. When bureaucrats must decide whether a person, firm, corporation, and so on has complied with laws and regulations and, if not, what penalties or corrective actions are to be applied.
  12. legitimization. When the governmental actors choose to address the issue and write policy on it
    Formulation/ adoption
  13. Non-governmental actors including local VIPs in town or interest groups,
    policy entrepreneurs
  14. attempt to observe and report. often are expected to do more than just report. Often are expected to offer recommendations based upon a myriad of factors (including ideological proclivities, intellectual curiosity, simple cost approach to list a few). "messenger"
  15. onducts research on whatever the IG's position is on whatever issue it is that it supports or opposes. often the source for white papers and evaluative studies. Evaluative studies are generally considered to be a form of "feedback" and can result in changes being made to a policy or provide the basis for its elimination altogether. Can be biased.
    think tank
  16. Used to simplify the complicated. Used in Political Science to explain, sometimes complicated, phenomenon that we observe occurring in the political arena.
  17. information IGs provide. PAC dollars contributed by interest groups to better their chances that the Congressional member "considers" their group's position on a particular issue.
  18. A state of being in accordance with established guidelines, specifications, or legislation or the process of becoming so. One aspect of measurement that can be used to illustrate outcomes.
  19. an alliance of sub-governmental units along some mutually beneficial line. The closed, mutually supportive relationships that often prevail in the United States between the government agencies, the special interest lobbying organizations, and the legislative committees or subcommittees with jurisdiction over a particular functional area of government policy. As long as they hang together, the members of these small groups of movers and shakers tend to dominate all policy-making in their respective specialized areas of concern, and they tend to present a united front against "outsiders" who attempt to invade their turf and alter established policies
    Iron triangle
  20. that stage where government, the 'official and legitimate' policymaker adopts (officially accepts) a policy.
  21. The "power of the purse". This implies money of course and if a bureaucrat is not enforcing the law as Congress would like to see it enforced, Congress can, through its powers to makeappropriations, cut the budget of said agency which can make it difficult for said agency to do much at all, let alone enforce! During the process Congress checks the bureaucrats and makes sure that in fact, they are implementing the law as Congress would like.
  22. Evaluative study where the researchers seek to measure the end results of a program. Usually takes the form of a cost-benefit analysis and they are the most utilized form of policy research. The chief concern is whether the program produced the "biggest bang for the dollars spent."
    impact study
  23. Refesr to the opportunities presented because of the convergence of events which allow discussion and actual action to take place on an issue. Opens when the problem, policy, and political streams merge.
    policy window
  24. involves all the activities designed to carry out the policies enacted by the legislative branch. Includes creation of new orgs or the assignment of new responsibilities to existing orgs.
  25. occurs when influential individuals or groups or the political system itself operates to keep issues out of the political arena.
    non-decision making
  26. The rules and regulations promulgated by the agencies.
  27. the possibility that other problems could emerge as a result of the program. Could be problems for other groups, or just problems that develop as the result of 'fixing' whatever it was that was perceived as broken.
    unintended consequences
  28. A complete lack of movement or progress resulting in a backup or stagnation
  29. inputs
Card Set
GOVT 2 Midterm