FRST 200 midterm

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  1. plant with naked seeds, first seed plant
  2. flowering plant, with fruit covered seeds
  3. what components had angiosperm species evolved from gymnosperms?
    with vessel elements (specialized for transport) and fibres (specialized for support)
  4. The naming and classification of species is called...
  5. Microphylls (leaf)
    evolved as outgrowths, called enations, of the main axis of the plant.
  6. Megaphylls (leaf)
    evolved by fusion of branch systems
  7. In classification systems, groups of related organisms are lumped together into
  8. What characteristics are used for taxonomy?
    reproductive isolation
  9. What are species?
    • · group of populations that resemble each other
    • relatively closely and other groups of populations less closely are called
    • species.

    · Species are reproductively isolated in most case
  10. Sterile Hybrid
    • offsprings cannot reproduce
    • (eg. donkey x horse)
  11. Fertile hybrid
    • off spring can reproduce 
    • (eg. two different species of dogs)
  12. why the definition of species based on reproductive isolation doesn’t always work?
    ·  closely relates species often hybridize

    • ·  genetic recombination doesn’t occur in some
    • organisms anyway
  13. Intergrading species are:
    ·  Common in trees

    ·  Useful to accommodate diverse habitats

    • ·  Prevalent in ecologically diverse areas (eg.
    • B.C.)
  14. three domains in living things
    • bateria
    • archaea
    • eukarya
  15. five traditionally recognized kingdom
    • Monera
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Animalia
    • Plantae
  16. what are the two major phyla in tree
    • Coniferophyta (conifers) 
    • Anthophyta (angiosperms)
  17. similarities and differences between monocots and eudicots
    • similarities:
    • vascular
    • flowering plants with seeds bornes within fruits

    • differences:
    • monocots: with one cotyledon; no true cambial activity
    • eudicots: with two cotyledons; many have true cambial activity
  18. what are the two phyla in gymnosperm trees?
    • coniferopytes
    • ginkophytes
  19. trees with "soft" wood,
    more than 2 cotyledons
    mostly "needle" leaves
    gymnosperm trees
  20. trees with "hard" wood
    only 2 cotyledons
    mostly broad-leaved
    angiosperm trees
  21. what is the function of plasma membrane of a cell
    controls the passage of materials in and out of the cell
  22. cytoplasm of cells
    gel-like consistency and contains numerous organelles and other structures
  23. Ribosomes
    • very small particles consisting of RNA and protein
    • to link amino acids together to form proteins, including enzymes
  24. Mitochondria
    • size smaller than chloroplast
    • has two membranes, inner membrane is heavily folded to increase the surface area for respiration
  25. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • a complex three-dimensional membrane system 
    • function as a communications system within the cell, channeling materials such as proteins and lipids to different parts of the cell 
    • Rough ER: with ribosomes attached for making protein
    • Smooth ER: without ribosomes attached, function in the synthesis of other things, such as lipids
  26. Dictyosomes (Golgi bodies)
    • groups of flat, disc-shaped sac 
    • involved in secretion, and most plant dictyosomes secrete materials needed to build the cell walls
  27. Cytoskeleton
    flexible framework comprised of microtubules and microfilaments
  28. Plastids
    • disk shape, large, complex
    • site of photosynthesis
    • chloroplasts: chlorophyll, green
    • chromoplasts: no chlorophyll, with other pigments
    • leucoplasts: no pigments
  29. microtubles
    long, thin cylindrical structures built of protein 

    • functions, including: 
    • § Assist in construction of cell wall by moving
    • cellulose synthesizing enzyme “rosettes” through plasma membrane

    § Direct dictyosomes to right places

    § Pull chromosomes apart in division

    § Direct formation of the cell plate
  30. Microfilaments
    • contractile proteins 
    • function to cause cytoplasmic streaming and cyclosis
  31. two basic types of microbodies and their functions
    glyoxysomes: convert fats to sugar, only in plants

    • peroxisomes: important in photorespiration (caused by O2 interfering with CO2 in photosynthesis. Peroxisomes assist by helping
    • to reverse the “damage” caused by photosynthesis)
  32. plant cell walls consist of two phases
    • a crystalline phase of cellulose 
    • a non-crystalline phase (the matrix) of pectin, extensin and (often) lignin
  33. Vacuole
    • liquid-filled cavity bounded by a membrane called a toroplast
    • to inflate the plant cell and increase its effective surface area for nutrient uptake, diffusion of gases, and light interception
    • important recycling factory
  34. meiosis
    division of a diploid cell into 4 haploid cells
  35. cell plate
    its formation is to separate two newly divided daughter cells
  36. what ploidy is gymnosperm seed
  37. what is the purpose of resin vesicles in the middle or outer layers of a gymnosperm seed coat
    • seed coat dormancy
    • protecting the embryo from excessive dehydration
    • deterring seed herbivory
  38. Megagametophyte
    • female gametophyte
    • haploid nutritional tissue of mature seed 
    • only found in gymnosperm seeds
    • after being fertilized by male gamete, produce zygote then grow into embryo 
    • surrounding the embryo, protecting and nourishing it
  39. parts in gymnosperm seed embryo
    • cotyledons
    • shoot apical meristem
    • root apical meristem
    • root cap
    • suspensor
  40. endosperm
    • in angiosperm seeds' early embryo development
    • triploid:1 female haploid + 1 female haploid + 1 male
    • haploid sperm
  41. plumule
    • only in some angiosperm seeds
    • a primordial shoot with leaves above (distal to) the cotyledons prior to germination
  42. scutellum
    • in monocot seeds
    • a large cotyledon for absorbing food digested from the endosperm
  43. coleoptile
    • in monocot seeds
    • protects (and guides) the plumule
  44. coleorhiza
    • in monocot seeds
    • protects radicle
  45. Suspensor in angiosperm seed
    supporting the early development of the embryo both through providing nutrition and growth regulators
  46. seed dormancy
    • For seed shed in fall, not enough time to
    • germinate, grow, set bud and get frost hardy before winter
  47. embryo dormancy
    • results from the levels of plant growth regulators (plant hormones)
    • Breaking embryo dormancy is dependent on decreasing growth inhibitor concentrations and increasing growth promoters above some threshold.
  48. chilling requirement
    • a required low temperature for a period of time to break the embryo dormancy
    • The process is call stratification: seeds are imbibed (soaked in water), then placed in a fridge for a period of time
  49. how can embryo dormancy be overcome?
    • stratification to meet the chilling requirement
    • applying artificial growth regulator
  50. types of seed dormancies
    • embryo dormancy
    • seed coat dormancy
    • Embryo immaturity 
    • Seed coat impermeability 
    • Light requirement 
    • Serotiny
  51. seed coat dormancy
    • require chemical inhibitors leached out by soaking in water
    • require heat treatment
  52. stages in seed germination
    • 1) seeds imbibe and swell; the seed coat ruptures;
    • 2) cell division occurs in the embryo and the radicle elongates and extends out of the seed;
    • 3) further elongation of the radicle pushes either the cotyledons or just the epicotyl (the portion of the shoot above the 
    • cotyledons) above the ground;
    • 4) hormones produced in the meristems and possibly elsewhere initiate enzymatic activity, hydrolysis of stored nutrients, and movement of these nutrients to regions of growth.
  53. gravitropic
    grows in the direction of gravitational pull
  54. epigeous germination
    • the cotyledons are pushed out of the ground, turn green and become photosynthetically active
    • (eg. douglas fir, red alder)
  55. hypogeous germination
    • the cotyledons remain in the ground and only the epicotyl emerges
    • (eg. oak)
  56. Nodules
    form on the roots, and in these nodules N2 gas is fixed into NH4+, which can then be converted into amino acids. This allows red alder to 'fertilize itself'.
  57. primary growth in plant
    longitudinal growth, or growth in length
  58. 3 stages of primary growth
    • 1) Cell division via mitosis: Daughter cells (new cells) are produced from meristematic cells (apical initials, or mother cells). 
    • 2) Cell expansion: Daughter cells grow to a functional size. 
    • 3) Cell differentiation and maturation: Cells develop the physical and physiological characteristics necessary to perform specialized functions.
  59. Meristems
    • zones of undifferentiated perpetually juvenile
    • cells capable of mitosis
  60. Apical meristems
    • zones of active division at tips of roots; shoots;
    • produce 3 types of primary meristems: protoderm, ground meristem, procambium
  61. 3 primary meristems
    Protoderm (makes dermal tissues)

    Ground meristem (makes ground tissues)

    Procambium (makes primary vaseular tissues)
  62. root function
    • penetrate solid
    • take up require material
    • exclude undesirable material
    • transport water and nutrients 
    • transport photosynthate
    • anchor and support the shoot
  63. The root apical meristem produces new cells of three types:
    • 1) Protoderm cells: (on the outside) will produce new epidermal tissues;
    • 2) The procambium: in the middle will produce cells that develop into a primary vascular (=conducting) system;
    • 3) Ground meristem cells: will produce the root cortex.
  64. endodermis
    regulates the flow of materials into the center of the root
  65. Procambium produces
    • primary phloem: the transport of food and other things 
    • primary xylem: transports water and dissolved mineral nutrients up to the shoot 
    • vascular cambium: a secondary meristem for lateral growth
  66. shoot apical meristem
    The meristematic region for shoot primary growth
  67. phytomere
    • A leaf plus its node and the internode below constitutes a repeating unit 
    • 1 node, 1 internode, 1+ leaved, 1+ axillary
    • meristems
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FRST 200 midterm
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