- •Inclusion is meaningful participation of
- students with special needs in the regular education classrooms and programs.
- •(similar to the term “mainstreaming”)
- in general education allows students with special needs to interact with
- typical peers. It also reduces the
- effects of labeling.
Learning disabilities and intelligence
- •According to IDEA 2004, students with
- disabilities include those with:
–Hearing impairment (including deafness)
–Speech or language impairment
–Visual impairment (including blindness)
–Serious emotional disturbance
–Traumatic brain injury
–Other health impairment
–Specific learning disability
- –(ADD and ADHD are covered under other
- federal legislation and as types of “other health impairments” under IDEA.)
Inclusion teams (who’s in them & what they do) Also called IEP Team
- -Teams serving students with disabilities include general and special education
- teachers, school administrators, parents, students (as appropriate), and other
- professionals when needed.
- -If a student is found eligible, the IEP
- team plans his or her program, specifying annual goals, services needed
- (special education, related services, and supplementary aids and services),
- placement (with an explanation of any time spent away from the regular class),
- and procedures for monitoring and reporting student progress.
IEP – what is it and what’s in it, when updated, who is involved
- -The IEP is a formal written plan designed
- for and based on the specific individual educational needs of each student with
-updated in IDEA provisions of 2004
- •IEP TEAM:
- Student’s classroom teacher(s)
- Any specialists who work with student
- Parents, Student (when appropriate)
componets of IEP
- •Child’s present levels of educational achievement
- •Measurable annual goals
- •How the child’s progress will be measured
- •Special education and related services and supplementary aids and services
- -Program modifications or supports
- •Explanation of the extent, if any, to
- which the child will not participate with nondisabled children in the regular
- •Any individual appropriate accommodations
- •State and district-wide assessments
- •Projected date for the beginning of the
- services and modifications
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) What it is and most restrictive environment
- LRE=The LRE for a student with disabilities is believed to be the appropriate placement closest to the general education classroom.
- options:–Full-time general education class
- –General education class with consultation
- to the teacher
- –General education class with instruction
- delivered by the specialist
- –Special class and general education class
- –General education class with co-teaching
- –General education class and resource room
- or itinerant services
- most restrictive environment:–Special class and general education class
- –Full-time special class and social
- –Full-time special class
- –Special school
- –Residential program
- –Home and hospital services
General Education teachers responsibilities to spec. ed students
•The general education teacher contributes to the success of students with special needs by participating in assessment, program planning and IEP development, placement decisions, and, most important,implementation of students’ general education programs
- – often the first professional to identify
- the specials needs of students and to initiate the referral process
- –source of valuable information about
- current school performance
- –participates in planning the student’s
- educational program and in developing the IEP
Special Ed referral process
- •Pre-referral Intervention
- –Data collection
- –Collaboration with parents &
- –Pre-referral intervention teams
- –Classroom modifications
- –General education & community
Prereferral team (can be called Response to
reg ed teachers
Who refers most students to Sp. Ed
regular ed teachers
test cannont discriminate by language or culture
Response to Intervention
- •A newer method for collaboration between
- general and special education
- •Centers around study of how well students
- learn when provided with various types of instructional interventions
- •Pre-referral approach that involves both
- assessment and instruction. Students who
- do not show progress may be eligible for special education services.
Classroom modifications and accommodations to help students with disabilities
- •Extra time on projects and written
- assignments (he is a perfectionist and likes to make sure everything is just
- •May benefit from sitting closer to the
- front of the room
•Extra time on tests
- •May need a quiet room to take the test
- (ask him if he needs this in your class)
- •May need help in pacing long term
- •Help with organizational skills
- (considered his weakest area of need)
•Homework written in planner
•Detailed assignment directions
- •Provide notes from class (he has
- difficulty keeping up) Check with him to see if this is still a problem.
- •Fine motor skills/eye-hand coordination a
- problem: handwriting may be poor. He may need additional time to copy notes.
Multi-disciplinary team tests for:
intellectual performance, academic achievement, area ofdisability
Assessment – what it is, Assessment Teams, Assessment Accommodations.
- •IDEA requires appropriate testing before
- placement into special education:
- –Testing must be in a student’s native
- –Valid assessments (recognized, validated
- –Assessment by a team of professionals,
- utilizing several pieces of information
- to formulate a placement decision.
- •The assessment team gathers information to determine if a student is eligible for
- special education services.
Types of diversity in your classroom, your
responsibility regarding diversity issues
- •Promoting academic success
- •Promoting acceptance by peers
- - promoting acceptance of diversity
Most common ESL language in US
Differentiated instruction/universal design for learning
being able to teach a variety of students and their disabilities together
rewarding or acknowledging positive behavior or acemdics
- Students can learn from each other with
- cooperative learning
Religious diversity in schools
- •A type of diversity that is not often
- discussed in relation to education is diversity of religion.
- •It is important for teachers to recognize
- that the students in their classrooms may be representative of this diversity.
- A family’s religion may influence several aspects of daily life including which
- days are celebrated as holidays, what foods are eaten, what types of clothing
- are considered appropriate and what kinds of activity choices students should
- be offered in school.
504 – what is it, who is it intended for?
•Section 504: A civil rights law for individuals with disabilities of all ages.
•Some students with disabilities receive accommodations within the general education classroom under Section 504.
- •Similar to procedures dictated under IDEA, the team approach is used to gather
- assessment information, make decisions about student eligibility, and develop
- an individualized accommodation plan called a 504 accommodation plan.
What is a Resource Room (in Special Ed)
A resource room is a separate, remedial classroom in a school where students with educational disabilities, such as specific learning disabilities, are given direct, specialized instruction and academic remediation and assistance with homework and related assignments as individuals or in groups
Importance of Collaboration
- •First introduced in Special Education law
- in IDEA 2004 as an alternative method for the identification of learning disabilities, RTI is now viewed as a more comprehensive approach to the collaboration of general and special education in the improvement of
- instruction for all students.
-gives the child more support and helps parents feel involved and in control with child's disability also it helps the teachers
What do parents often experience when their child is diagnosed with a disability?
grief stages – shock, denial…
Related Services – what are they; name a few
- •Psychological services for assessment and
•Speech and language services
•Special physical education
•Physical and occupational therapy
Basics of classroom management (check unit 5 power points)
- •Ensure a safe and barrier-free
•Make the working conditions pleasant
- •Obtain appropriate furniture and special
•Arrange space functionally
- •Consider educational goals in making
- seating arrangements
- •Organize curricular skills and
•Group Students for Instruction
•Set up systems for monitoring practice
•Provide guidelines for student behavior
•Use systematic record-keeping procedures
•Manage instructional times effectively
•Select learning materials wisely
- •Recruit, train and supervise
- instructional personnel
Americans with Disabilities Act (definition &
purpose – basics)
•Civil rights legislation in the US that provides a mandate to end discrimination against people with disabilities in private sector employment, all public services, public accommodations, transportation and telecommunications.
Vocational Rehabilitation Act – Section 504 (basics & definition)
- •Section 504:
- In 1973 congress passed an amendment to the Vocational Rehabilitation Act that
- includes provisions prohibiting discrimination against persons with disabilities in federally assisted programs and activities.
- (cannot be denied access to, or benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under any
- program/activity provided by, any entity/institution that receives federal
- financial assistance.)
IFSP (Individualized Family Service Plan) Check Power Point – Unit 1
•A plan of services for infants, toddlers and their families. Includes statements regarding the child’s present developmental level, the family’s strengths and needs, the major outcome of the plan, specific interventions and delivery systems to accomplish outcomes and transition into public schools. These services are often provided in the home.
•Purpose is to help the child progress as much as possible before entering school.
Transition Plan – who is it for – what ages?
helping students to transition to life after high school 14-17 years old
Functional Behavioral Assessment
Functional behavioral assessment is generally considered to be a problem-solving process for addressing student problem behavior. It relies on a variety of techniques and strategies to identify the purposes of specific behavior and to help IEP teams select interventions to directly address the problem behavior. Functional behavioral assessment should be integrated, as appropriate, throughout the process of developing, reviewing, and, if necessary, revising a student’s IEP.
Behavior Intervention Plan
require special ed teachers to come up with a behavior plan for students who have behaviors problems to help them get rid of the behavior and helping the students by collaborating with special ed and parents
Ways to help students to feel more socially accepted
•Change attitudes with information
- •Recognize the similarities between
- special and general education students
- •Prepare students in the general education
- class for the inclusion of students with disabilities
- •Prepare students with disabilities for
- •Prepare parents for the inclusion of
- students with disabilities