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  1. What are the four functions of the skeletal system?
    • support and protect the body
    • provides movement in relation with the muscles
    • stores calcium
    • produces blood cells
  2. what is the axial skeleton?
    How many and what bones consist of the axial skeleton?
    • all bones lying near or on the central axis of the body
    • 80 bones in the axial skeleton bones of the skeleton include:sternum, ribs, vertebrae column, sacrum and coccyx
  3. How many bones are in the appendicular skeleton and what are they?
    126 bones in appendicular skeleton these include all bones of the limbs (upper and lower) and the shoulder blades, pelvic girdle and clavicles
  4. What are sesamoid bones?
    special type oval bones located in tendons near joints
  5. What are the largest sesamoid bones of the body?
    the patella
  6. What are the four categories of all 206 bones?
    short flat long irregular
  7. are sesamoid bones considered part of the normal axial or appendicular skeleton
  8. What does a long bone consist of?
    consists of a body and an upper and lower extremities (ends of the bone)
  9. Where are short bones only found?
    wrists and ankle
  10. List examples of flat bones
    Skullcap (calvaria), ribs, sternum and scapulae
  11. List examples of irregular bones
    bones of the face, bones of the floor of the skull and the vertebrae and bones of the pelvis
  12. What is intramembranous ossification?what is ossification?
    when bone replaces membraneprocess of forming bone
  13. What is endochondral ossification?
    when bone replaces cartilage
  14. What is the primary center of ossification?
    the diaphysis of a bone
  15. what are the secondary centers of ossification
    the epiphysis of the long bones
  16. What cartilaginous plates are found between the diaphysis and epiphysis until skeletal growth is complete?
    epiphyseal plates
  17. What are the 3 structures of joints?
    fibrous cartilaginous synovial
  18. what are the three functional properties of joints?
    • amphiarthroses (slightly moveable or limited movement)
    • diarthroses (freely moveabele)
    • synarthroses (immoveable)
  19. what does it mean when a joint is a synovial joint?
    it means the joint is there is synovial fluid in the joint capsule
  20. What does fibrous and catilaginous joints lack?
    joint cavity
  21. Cartilaginous joints allow what two types of functional movements?
    synarthrodial and amphiarthrodial movements held by cartilage
  22. List examples of cartilaginous joints
    fibrocartilage between the vertebral disks and pubic symphysis
  23. Name an example of synchondroses joint and its level of movement
    epiphyseal plates which are synarthrodial
  24. What are the 7 types of synovial joint movement?
    • plane (gliding)
    • Ginglymus (hinge)
    • trochoid (pivot)
    • Spheroidal (ball and socket)
    • Ellipsoid (condylar)
    • Bicondylar
    • sellar (saddle)
  25. What synovial joint has the least amount of movement?
    plane (gliding joints) of the hand and wrist
  26. What type of movement is permitted in the ginglymus joints?
    List examples
    • flexion and extension movements like in the elbow joint
    • knee joint elbow joint ankle joint IP joints of the fingers
  27. list examples of plane or gliding joint
    • atlantoaxial joints like when moving the head left and right
    • intermetacarpals
    • and CMC joint of the wrist
  28. what movement does a trochoid joint allow(definition)
    allows rotational movement around a single axis
  29. list some examples of trochoid joints
    • proximal and distal radioulnar joints
    • and c1 and c2
  30. what is the movement permitted in an ellipsoid joint (definition)
    movement that primarily occurs in one plane combined with a slight degree of rotation at an axis of right angles to the primary plane of movement
  31. What movements are permitted with ellipsoid joints of the fingers?
    flex extend ab and adduct and circumduct
  32. give 2 examples of the ellipsoid joint
    MCP joints of fingers 2-5 and metatarsalphalangeal joints of toes
  33. what joint has the ends of the bone shaped like a concave convex and are positioned opposite to each other
  34. Where is the only sellar (saddle) joint found in the body?
    in the thumb and it is the carpometacarpal joint
  35. what synovial joint allows the greatest freedom of motion
    spheroidal (ball and socket)
  36. define bycondylar joints
    list examples
    • joints with movement in a single direction
    • knee and tmj
  37. what is a radiograph
    an image of a patients anatomic parts produced by the action of xrays on an image receptor
  38. define radiography
    process and procedures of producing a radiograph
  39. define the difference between the xray film and a radiograph
    • xray film is a physical piece of material on which a nonprocessed image is stored
    • radiograph includes the image produce by an IR
  40. define the IR
    device that captures the radiographic image that exits the patient
  41. define CR
    centermost portion of the xray beam that has the least divergence
  42. list all the general steps to a radiographic examination or procedure
    • position body part and align the CR
    • select appropriate radiation protection
    • select tech factors
    • give patient instructions relating to respiration or initiation of exposure
    • process IR
  43. what is another meaning for axial
  44. what is a section
    is a cut or slice image of a body part in MRI, Sonography or CT
  45. what is the sagittal plane
    any longitudinal plane that divides the body into right and left parts
  46. what is the midsagittal plane?
    is a longitudinal plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves
  47. coronal plane:
    longitudinal plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior halves
  48. horizontal (axial) plane
    any transverse plane that passes through the body dividing into superior and inferior halves
  49. what is the oblique plane
    is a longitudinal or transverse plane that passes through the body at an angle or slant
  50. what is the dorsum manus
    back of the hand
  51. what is ap/pa projection
    • where the CR enters the anterior surface and exits the posterior side
    • Pa: CR enters the posterior side and exits ventral side
  52. what is a Ap oblique projection
    ap projection of the upper or lower limb that is rotated
  53. what is pa oblique projection
    pa projection of the upper limb with lateral rotation
  54. What is a lateral projection mediolateral and lateromedial projection?
    • A lateral projection is describe by the path of the CR
    • Examples: mediolateral projection CR enters medial side of the body exits lateral side of body like in the ankle lateromedial projection CR enters lateral side and exits medial side of body like in the wrist
  55. what projection is thisImage Upload 1
    ap oblique projection - medial rotation
  56. projection?Image Upload 2
    pa oblique projection - lateral rotation
  57. projection?
    mediolateral projection
  58. projection?
    lateromedial projection
  59. what is recumbent
    laying down in any position
  60. what is dorsal recumbent
    supine position
  61. ventral recumbent?
    lying on your abdomen prone
  62. lateral recumbent
    lying on your side right or left
  63. what is trendelenberg position
    position where the head is lower than the feet reclining
  64. fowlers position?
    head above the feet
  65. sims position?
    what is it used for?
    • position with patient lying on the left anterior side with the right knee and thigh flexed and the left arm extended down and behind the back.
    • barium enemas
  66. What is the lithotomy position?
    a recumbent position with knees and hip flexed and thighs abducted and rotated externally, supported by ankle supports
  67. What specific position is this?
    erect LPO
  68. erect R lateral position
  69. erect RAO position
  70. recumbent L lateral position
  71. recumbent LPO position
  72. recumbent RAO position
  73. what is the decubitus position
    means to lied down on a horizontal surface designated to the surface on which the body is resting
  74. what is the R or L lateral decubitus Ap or PA projection
    it is when the patient is lying on the R or L side in which the CR projection enters the front first (which is left lateral decubitus) or if the CR enters the back first (which R lateral decubitus)
  75. How is the ray positioned when taking a decubitius x-ray
    • dorsal decubitus (L Lateral)
    • It is named because of the position which is dorsal and by the side closest to the IR
  76. ventral decubitus (R lateral)
  77. left lateral decubitus ap projection
  78. right lateral decubitus (pa projection)
  79. What is the axial projection?
    any angle of the CR  10 degrees or more along the long axis of the body part (like CR hitting the skull from the top and in the center)
  80. what is a tangential projection
    • a projection that merely skims a body part to project that part into profile away from other body structures
    • tangential - touching only a curve or surface at only one point
  81. What is inferosuperior and superoinferior axial projections
    what are they used for?
    • CR enters below or inferiorlyand exits superiorly and vice-versa
    • they are mainly used for shoulder and hip
  82. axial (superoinferior) projection
  83. ap axial (semiaxial) projection (CR 37 degrees caudal)
  84. inferosuperior axial projection
  85. what is the specific projection for chest to view the apices of the lungs?
    AP axial lordotic chest projection
  86. what is the transthoracic lateral projection
    a lateral projection through the thorax
  87. what projections are used for the top and bottom of the foot?
    DP (dorsoplantar for a CR entering the top of foot and exiting the bottom) and PD (plantodorsal CR enters the bottom of foot and exits through dorsal side of foot)
  88. transthoracic lateral shoulder projection (left lateral shoulder position)
  89. What is the special projection used for the calcaneus?
    axial plantodorsal projection
  90. what is cephalad and caudad
    • cephalad toward the head
    • caudad away from the head end of the body
  91. what is scoliosis
    excessive longitudinal spinal curves from side to side
  92. What is valgus and varus stress? (pertaining to feet)
    • valgus stress is eversion away from the midline
    • varus stress is inversion towards the midline
    • pertaining to feet
  93. rotation vs tilt
    rotation is to turn or rotate a body part on it axis (ex moving head towards the left)

    • tilt is a slanting or tilting movement with respect to the long axis
    • Ex. Moving head up while laying down parallel to table
  94. what are the four positioning principles
    • anatomy demonstrated
    • position -
    • exposure - optimal tech factors
    • image markers - r or l indicated
  95. a minimum of what two types of markers should be placed on every radiographic image
    patient id and anatomical side marker
  96. what are the two general rules for determining positioning routines
    • all diagnostic radiograhpic images require a minimum of 2 projections (except portable chest, and kub and ap pelvis
    • all radiographs involving joints require 3 projections
  97. what is the difference between a basic projection and special projection
    basic projections are routines that can be done with patients that can cooperate fully

    special projections are used to show better specific anatomical parts or certain pathologic conditions if the patient cannot cooperate fully
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