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  1. Domain
    the highest level in classification above kindgom
  2. eukaryote
    organism composed of one or more eukaryotic cells
  3. Eukaryotic Cells
    Cell type characterized by a membrane bound nucleus
  4. obligate intracellular parasite
    an organism or virus that multiplies only inside living cells
  5. Prion
    a non-living infectious agent consisting only of protein
  6. Prokatyote
    single celled organisms consisting of a prokaryotic cell
  7. Prokaryotic Cells
    cell type characteried by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus
  8. Viriod
    a non living infectious agent consisting only of RNA
  9. Virus
    A non-living infectios agent consisting of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat
  10. Amino Acid
    a subunit of protein
  11. Atom
    the basic unit of matter
  12. Carbohydrate
    a compound containing principally carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a tario of 1:2:1
  13. Covalent Bonds
    a strong chemical bond formed when 2 atoms share electrons.
  14. Hydrogen Bonds
    the attraction between a hydrogen atom in a polar molecule and an electronegative atom in the same or another polar molecule
  15. Inorganic Compound
    a compound that in not organic
  16. ion
    an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more molecules
  17. Ionic Bond
    a chemical bond resulting from the attraction between positively and negatively charged ions
  18. Lipid
    an organic molecule that is insoluble in water
  19. Macromolecule
    a very large molecule usually consisting of repeating subunits
  20. Nucleic Acid
    A macromolecule 2 or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
  21. Nucleotide
    the subunit of nucleic acids
  22. Organic Compound
    A compound that has a carbon atom covalently bonded to a hydrogen atom
  23. pH
    a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration or acidity of a solution on a scale from 0 to 14
  24. Protein
    a macromolecule consisiting of one or more chains of amino acids
  25. Capsule
    a distinct thick gelatinous material that surrounds some microoganisms
  26. Chemotaxis
    movement of a cell toward or away from a certain chemical in the environment
  27. Cytoplasmic membrane
    a phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins that surrounds the cytoplasm and defines the boundary of the cell
  28. Endospore
    an extraordinarily resistant dormant cell produced by some bacteria
  29. Flagellum
     a type of structure used for cell movement
  30. Gram-Negative bacteria
    bacteria that has a cell wall characterized by a thin layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by an outer membrane
  31. Gram-postive
    bacteria that has a cell wall characterized by a thick layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by an outer membrane
  32. Lipopolysaccharide
    molecules that make up the outer layer of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria
  33. Peptidoglycan
    a macromolecule that makes up the outer layer of the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria
  34. periplasm
    the gel-like material that fills the region between the cytoplasm membrane and the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria
  35. Pili
    cell surface structures that allow cell to adhere to certain surfaces
  36. plasmid
    extrachromosomal DNA molecule that replicates independently of the chromosome
  37. Ribosomes
    strucuture involved in protein synthesis
  38. Transport Systems
    mechanisms used to transport nurtrients and other small molecules across the cytoplasmic membrane
  39. Biofilm
    polymer-encased community of mircooganisms
  40. Chemically Defined Medium
    a culture medium composed of exact quantities of pure chemicals
  41. Complex Medium
    A culture medium that contain protein digest, extracts, or other ingrediants
  42. Differential Medium
    A culture medium with an ingredient that certain microoganisms change in a recongnizable way
  43. Exponential Phase
    stage in the growth curve during which cell divide at a constant rate
  44. Facultative Anaerobe
    organism that grows best if O2 is available
  45. Generation Time
    the time it takes for a population to double in number
  46. Obligate Aerobe
    organism that requires molecular oxygen
  47. Obligate anaerobe
    organism that cannot grow in the presence of oxygen
  48. Plate Count
    method to measure the concentration of viable cells by determining the number of colonies that develop from a sample added to an agar plate
  49. Pure Culture
    a population descended from a single cell
  50. Selective Medium
    a culture medium with an ingredient that inhibits the growth of microbes other than the one being sought
  51. Antiseptic
    a disinfectant nontoxic enough to be used on skin
  52. Aseptic Technique
    procedures that minimize the chance of unwanted microbes being accidently introduce
  53. Bactericidal
    kills bacteria
  54. Bacteriostatic
    prevents the growth of, but does not kill, bacteria
  55. disinfectant
    a chemical that destroys many microbes
  56. Germicides
    kill microbes
  57. Pasteurization
    brief heat treatment that reduces the number of spoilage organisms and destroys disease-causing microbes
  58. Preservation
    process of inhibiting microbial growth to delay spoilage
  59. Sterilant
    completely free of all viable microbes
  60. Sterilization
    the destruction or removal of all microbes through physical or chemical means 
  61. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) 
    the energy currency of cells
  62. Anabolism
    processes that synthesize and assembles the subunits of macromolecules
  63. Catabolism
    processes that harvest energy released during the breakdown of compounds such as glucose using it to synthesize ATP
  64. Electron Transport Chain
    group of membrane-embedded electron carriers that pass electrons from one to another
  65. Enzyme
    a protein that functions as a catalyst, speeding up a biological reaction
  66. Fermentation
    metabolic process that stops short of oxidizing glucose or other organic intermediate as a terminal electron acceptor
  67. Oxidative Phosphorylation
    synthesis of ATP using the energy of a proton motive force created by harvesting chemical energy
  68. Photophosphorylation
    synthesis of ATP using the energy of a proton motive forxe created by harvesting radiant energy
  69. Precursor Metabolites
    metabolic intermediate that can be either used to make the subunits of macromolecules or oxidized to genrate ATP
  70. Proton Motive Force
    Form of energy generated as an electron transport chain moves protons across a membrane to create a chemiosmotic gradient
  71. respiration
    metabolic process that transfers electrons stripped from a chemical energy sourse to an electron transport chain
  72. Substrate-level phosphorylation
    synthesis of ATP using the energy released in an exergonic chemical reaction during the breakdownof the energy source
  73. Terminal Electron Acceptor
    Chemical that is ultimately reduced as a consequence of fermentation or respiration
  74. Codon
    a series of three nucleotides that code for a specific amino acids
  75. DNA polymerase
    enzyme that synthesizes DNA using an existing strand as a template to make the complementary strand
  76. DNA replication
    duplication of a DNA molecule
  77. Gene
    the functional unit of the genome: it encodes a product, most often a protein
  78. Genome
    complete set of genetic information  in a cell or virus
  79. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    type of RNA molecule translated during protein synthesis
  80. Promoter
    Nucleotide sequence to which RNA molecule translated during protien synthesis
  81. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    type of RNA molecule present in ribosomes
  82. Ribosomes
    strucuture that facilitates the joining of amino acids during translation
  83. RNA polymerase
    Enzyme that synthesizes RNA using one strand of DNA as a template
  84. Transription
    the process that copies the information encoded by DNA into RNA
  85. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
    type of RNA molecule that acts as a key, interpreting the genetic code
  86. Translation
    the process that uses the info carried by mRNA to synthesize the encoded protein
  87. Auxotroph
    a microoganism that requires an organic growth factor
  88. Conjugation
    mechanism of horizontal gene transfer i which the donor cell physically contacts the recipient cell
  89. DNA- mediated transformation
    mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in which the bacterial DNA is trasnferred as "naked" DNA
  90. Genotype
    The sequence of nucleotides
  91. Homologous recombination
    process by which a cell replaces a stretch of DNA with a segment that has a similar nucleotide sequence
  92. Horizontal Gene Transfer
    DNA transfer from one bacterium to another by conjugation
  93. Mutation
    a change in the nucleotide sequence of a cell's DNA that is then passed on to the daughter cells
  94. Non-homologous recombination
    DNA recombination that does not require extensive nucleotide sequence similarity in the stretches that recombine
  95. Phenotype
    The observed characteristics of a cell
  96. Plasmids
    an extrachromosomal DNA molecule that replicates independently of the chromosome
  97. Prototroph
    a microoganism that does not require any organic growth factors
  98. Transduction
    mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer i which bacterial DNA is transferred inside a phage coat
  99. Transposon
    segment of DNA that can move from one site to another in a cell's genome
  100. Wild Type
    form of the cell or gene as it typically occurs in nature
  101. Colony Blotting
    technique used to determine which colonies on an agar plate contain a given nucleotide
  102. DNA cloning
    procedure in whicha fragment of DNA in inserted into a vector and trasferred into another cell where it is replicated
  103. DNA microarray
    a probe based technique used to study gene expression patterns
  104. DNA Probe
    single stranded piece of DNA, tagged with a detectable marker, that is used to detect a complementary sequences
  105. DNA sequecing
    process of determing the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule
  106. Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH)
    technique used to detect a given nucleotide sequence within intact cells on a microscope slide
  107. Gel Electrophoresis
    a procedure used to separate DNA fragments according to their size
  108. Genetic Engineering
    deliberarely altering an organism's genetic information using in vitro
  109. Polymerase chain reaction
    in vitro technique used to duplicate a specific region of DNA molecule, increasing the numbers of copies exponentially
  110. recombiant DNA
    DNA molecule created by joing DNA fragments from to different sources
  111. restriction Enzyme
    type of enzyme that recongnizes a specific nucleotide sequence and then cuts the DNA within or near that site
  112. Vector
    DNA Molecule, often a plasmid, that functions as a carrier of cloned DNA
Card Set
Vocab Terms for Micro
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