1. What do living cells require to perform their tasks?
    transfusions of energy from outside sources, assembling polymers, pumping substances across membranes, moving, and reproducing.
  2. Where does the energy stored in organic molecules of food come from?
    Sun - energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and exits as heat.
  3. What does photosynthesis do?
    Generates oxygen and organic molecules used by mitochondria of eukaryotes (including plants and algae) as fuel for cellular respiration.
  4. What are the waste products of cellular respiration?
    carbon dioxide and water, which are the raw materials of photosynthesis.
  5. What is a catabolic pathway?
    Metabolic pathway that releases stored energy by breaking down complex molecules.
  6. Organic compounds possess potential energy as a result of ___________________?
    The arrangement of electrons in the bonds between their atoms.
  7. Fermentation
    A partial degradation of sugars or other organic fuel that occurs without the use of oxygen.
  8. Aerobic Respiration
    Catabolic pathway in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
  9. Cellular Respiration
    includes both aerobic and anaerobic processes although often used to refer to the aerobic process.
  10. Redox Reaction
    Electron transfers from one reactant to another, also called oxidation-reduction reactions.
  11. Oxidation
    The loss of electrons from one substance.
  12. Reduction
    The addition of electrons to another substance.
  13. Reducing Agent
    The electron donor
  14. Oxidizing Agent
    The electron acceptor
  15. Electron Transport Chain
    Consists of a number of molecules, mostly proteins, built into the inner membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and the plasma membrane of aerobically respiring prokaryotes.
  16. What is the typical route of cellular respiration?
    Glucose -- NADH -- electron transport chain -- oxygen.
  17. 3 Stages of Cellular Respiration
    • 1. Glycolsis
    • 2. Pyruvate oxidation and the citric acid cycle
    • 3. Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis
  18. Glycolysis
    Occurs in the cytosol, begins the degradation process by breaking glucose into two molecules of a compound called pyruvate.
  19. Citric Acid Cycle
    Breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide is completed
  20. Oxidative phosphorylation
    ATP synthesis that occurs when an inorganic phosphate is added to ADP, thus becoming ATP
  21. Substrate-level phosphorylation
    The mode of ATP synthesis that occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group frm a substrate molecule to ADP, rather than adding an inorganic phosphate to ADP.
Card Set
Cellular Respiration and Fermentation