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  1. Once the endocrine cells has secreted the hormone, and the hormone is circulating in the blood, what are the 4 options for the hormones:
    • excreted in urine or feces
    • inactivated by metabolism
    • target cells: bind to receptor and produce a cellular response
    • activiated by metabolism
  2. hormones are substances released into the blood from ________________. the major transport system for hormones to target cells is :
    hormones are substances released into the blood from endocrine glands. the major transport system for hormones to target cells is blood
  3. what are the 3 major types of hormone strucutre and synthesis:
    • steroids: derived from cholesterol
    • peptides: made up of amino acids
    • modified amino acid hormones (amines): contain nitrogen
  4. describe the characteristics of steroid hermones:
    • lipid soluble
    • diffuse easily through cell membranes; receptors are located with cell
    • chemical structure is derived from or is similar to cholesterol
  5. what are the 4 structures that secrete steroid hormones:
    • adrenal cortex: secrete the steroid cortisol
    • ovaries: secrete the steroid estrogen
    • testes: secrete the steroid testosterone
    • placenta: secretes estrogen
  6. what are the chacteristics of nonsteroid hormones (amino acid derivatives and peptides):
    • nonlipid soluble
    • cannot easily diffuse throught cell membranes; receptor located on cell membrane

    • 2 types of nonsteroid hormones
    • amino acid derivatives: epinephrine
    • peptide hormone: insulin
  7. mediator of hormonal signals to DNA are called:

    List and describe 2 types:

    • peptide receptors:
    • composed of amino acids
    • rely on intracellular secondary messenger systems

    • steroid receptors
    • found on DNA inself
    • allow more direct singla interactions
  8. Plasma levels of specific hormones fluctuate, describe 2 methods of control of hormone release:
    • secretion is regulated by feedback systems
    • cells can alter their number of hormone receptors via down- or up-regulation

    • down regulation
    • decrease the # of cell receptors
    • less hormones can bind to the cell and higher concentrations of the hormone remain in the blood plasma

    • up regulation
    • increase in # of cell receptors
    • more hormone can bind to the cell and lower concentrations of the hormone remain in the blood plasma
  9. describe the general fxn of the 3 feeback systems:
    • negative feedback: secreted hormone acts to decrease its secretion from the gland; example- testosterone
    • positive feedback: secreted hormone acts to increase its secretion from gland; example- oxytocin
    • multiple feedback influences: redundant regulation of a vital process; example- several anabolic hormones single protein systhesis
  10. hormones are released from storage sites on mechanical, neural, or hormonal signals, what are the 3 types of hormones based on action:
    • endocrine: secreted directly into the blood
    • paracrine: released & acts on nearby cells; no transport in the blood
    • autocrine: release & acts on the cell that released it
  11. circadian response patterns are sensitive to:
    • light & dark cycles
    • sleep patterns
    • seasonal changes

    • -some hormones start out low in the morning & peak over the course of the date
    • -some hormones peak in the morning & then decline over the day
    • -no clear evidence of optimal times of the day to train or compete
  12. list the endocrine glands that hormones are secreted from:
    • hypothalamus and pituitary glands
    • thyroid and parathyroid glands
    • adrenal glands
    • pancreas
    • testes and ovaires
  13. the hypothalamus controls secretions from the pituitary gland, list and describe the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus:
    • GnRH: gonadotropin-releasing hormone
    • GHRH: growth hormone - releasing hormone
    • SS: somatostatin
    • TRH: thyrotropin-releasing hormone
    • CRH: corticotropin releasing hormone

    • -the hypothalamus stimulates release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland by means of releaseing hormones or factors
    • -provides hormones for release from posterior pituitary gland, as well.
  14. ACTH

    where it is released from:
    what does it stimulate:
    • name: adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • released from: anterior pituitary gland
    • stimulates: cortisol release from adrenal glands
  15. LH

    where it is released from:
    what it stimulates:
    • name: Luteinizing hormone
    • released from: anterior pituitary gland
    • stimulates: production of testosterone and estrogen
  16. TSH

    where it is released from:
    what it stimulates:
    • name: thyroid stimulating hormone
    • released from: anterior pituitary gland
    • stimulates: controls thyroid hormone release from the thyroid gland
  17. GH:

    where it is released from:
    what it stimulates:
    • name: growth hormone
    • released from: anterior pituitary gland
    • stimulates: IGF-1 in muscle responsible for muscle growth
  18. what are the fxns of GH:
    • Essential growth of all tissues
    • amino acid uptake and protein synthesis
    • long bone growth

    • spares plasma glucose
    • reduces the use of plasma glucose
    • increases gluconeogenesis
    • mobilizes fatty acid from adipose tissue
  19. what are the characteristics of IGF's

    hormone type:
    major forms:
    • name: Insulin-like growth factors
    • hormone type: super family of peptides
    • major forms: IGF-I, IGF-II
    • secreted from cells in the endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine releases
    • have important anabolic actions for muscle & bone
  20. IGH's have 6 know binding proteins, with the following fxns:

    describe the fxn of signals for protein synthesis:
    • extend half-life of IGF's in circulation
    • transport IGFs to target cells
    • help modulate biological actions of IGFs

    • signals for protein synthesis
    • signaling system translates message in IFG-I to DNA
    • exercise can stimulate IGF-I signaling mechanisms
  21. IGF characteristics in exercise response & adaptions:
    • improved fitness results in increased resting IGF-I
    • acute increases with exercise stress depend on:
    • intensity & volume of exercise
    • fitness level
    • carbohydrate/protein intake
  22. GH increases during exercise to mobilize:
    • free fatty acids from adipose tissue
    • aid in the maintenance of blood glucose
  23. T3 and T4

    From which gland is it secreted from:
    • Names: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine
    • Secreted from: thyroid gland
    • Fxn: establishes the metabolic rate; permissive hormones- permit the full effect of other hormones
  24. Calcitonin

    Where is it secreted from:
    • Secreted from: the thyroid gland
    • Fxn: regulation of plasma Ca+2; decrease Ca+2 concentration; blocks release from bone; stimulates excretion from kidneys
  25. PTH

    Where is it secreted from:
    What does it stimulate:
    What are the 3 target regions of stimulation:
    Regulated feedback:
    • Name: parathyroid hormone
    • secreted from: thyroid gland
    • Stimulates: increased concentrations of calcium in the blood
    • Target regions: bone, kidney, intestines
    • Feedback: negative feedback system; increased calcium concentrations result in decreased production of the hormone
  26. ACTH

    Where is it secreted from:
    What' does it stimulate:
    • Name: adrenocorticotropin
    • Secreted from: anterior pituitary gland
    • Stimulates: cortisol production; cortisol to be released from the adrenal glands
  27. This gland is called the "fight or flight" gland:
    What is its main fxn:
    Where is the gland located:
    What are the 2 fxnal regions of the gland:
    • "Fight or Flight" gland: adrenal gland
    • Main fxn: designed to assist in the response to stress
    • Located: on top of the kidney's
    • Fxnal regions: adrenal cortex; adrenal medulla
  28. Hormonal secretions from the adrenal cortex influence:
    • High level performance
    • Recovery from exercise stress
  29. What type of hormones do the adrenal cortex produce:

    list the 3 categories of hormones secreted from the andrean cortex:
    • Produces: steroid hormones, derived from cholesterol
    • mineralcorticoids: a group of hormones that help regulate water balance and electrolytes (Na+ and K+); example-aldosterone
    • glucocorticoids: aids in the regulation of plasma glucose; example - cortisol
    • sex steriods: supports prepubescent growth; example - androgens and estrogens
  30. what are the methods by which cortisol aids in the maintenance of plasma glucose:
    what is cortisol stimulated by:
    • promotes pretein breakdown for gluconeogenesis (synthesis of glucose from amino acids and lipids)
    • stimulates FFA mobilization
    • stimulates glucose synthesis
    • blocks uptake of glucose into the cells (to promote the use of free fatty acids as fuel)
    • all of this is done to conserve glucose, primary source of energy for brain/nervous system

    stimulated by: stress via ATCH and exercise
  31. what type of hormones are secreted by the adrenal medulla:
    what kind of receptors do these hormones bind to:
    what do the effects of hormones secreted by the adrean medulla depend on:
    • secreted by adrenal medulla: catecholamines; epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine; fast acting hormones, part of the "flight or flight" response
    • bind to: adrenergic receptors; alpha and beta
    • effects depend on: the hormone used; receptor type
  32. list and describe the 2 pancreatic hormones:
    • insulin: secreted when plasma glucose levels are elevated (hyperglycemia)
    • glucagon: secrete when plasma glucose levels are below normal (hypoglycemia)
  33. list and describe the roles of the different cell types in the pancreas:
    • beta cells: secrete insulin to lower blood glucose when high
    • alpha cells: secrete glucagon to increase blood glucose when low
    • delta cells: secrete somatostatin to inhibit release of insulin & glucagon
    • PP cells: secrete pancreatic ploypeptides to inhibit release of pancreatic jucies
    • *exercise decreases insulin & increases glucose in the blood
  34. insulin is secreted by the ___________ of the islets of langerhans in the pancreas and promotes the storage of _____, _____, and ____.
    insulin is secreted by the beta cells of the islets of langerhans inthe pancreas and promotes the storage of glucose, amino acids, and fats
  35. glucagon is secreted by ____  of the islets of langerhans in the pnacreas and promotes the mobilization of _______ and ______.
    glucagon is secreted by alpha cells of the islets of langerhans inthe pnacreas and promotes the mobilizatin of glucose and fats
  36. testosterone

    where is it released from:
    what are testosterone's fxn as an anabolic steroid:
    what are testosterone's fxn as an andrognic steroid:
    effects of resistance training:
    effects of endurance training:
    • released from: testes
    • anaboic steroid fxn: promotes tissue (muscle) building; preformance enhancement
    • androgenic steroid fxn: promotes masculine characteristics
    • resistance training: increases resting values
    • enduracne training: results in no change or decrease
  37. estorgen and progesterone

    where is it released from:
    what are their fxns:
    • released from: ovaries
    • fxns: establish and maintain reproductive fxn
    • levels vary throughout the menstrual cycle
  38. the peptide assiociated with "runners high" is called:
    • beta- endorphin
    • also associated with pain relief
    • training adaptions appear to occur with sprint intervals
    • levels increase in response to pain, trauma, exercise, and stress
  39. MSH:

    affects what structure:
    • melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    • affects: blood brain barrier for glucose, sucrose, and albumin
    • impacts mental fxns such as memory, arousal & fear
    • responsive to exercise stress
  40. catecholamines- epinephrine and norepinephrine

    stimulated by:
    effects that will be seen throught the body:
    stimulated by: sympathetic nervous system to prepare your for immediate action

    • effects seen thought the body:
    • increase rate and force of heart contraction, blood pressure, and respiration
    • increased metabolic rate, glycogenolysis, and release of glucose and FFA into blood
    • allows more blood to go to the skeletal muscles
  41. which catecholamine may be important for force production:

    higher intensity exercise results in higher concentrations
  42. what are the fxn of aldosterone:
    • helps to regulate water balance and eletrolytes in blood
    • signals kidney to retain sodium and secrete potassium
    • increases blood pressure & volume, cause water retention
    • influcences acid/base balance
  43. list the hormones that increase glucose metabolism:
    • glucagon
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
    • cortisol
  44. list the hormones that increase fat metabolism:
    • growth hormone
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
    • cortisol
  45. the most effect training program for an increase in human growth hormone is:
    3 sets of 10 RM with 1 minute of rest in between
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