Perception and Stuff

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  1. Gestalt
    • an organized whole
    • Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
  2. Figure-Ground
    the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)
  3. Grouping
    the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
  4. Types of Grouping
    • proximity
    • similarity
    • continuity
    • connectedness
    • closure
  5. Proximity
    We group nearby figures together
  6. Similarity
    We group similar figures together
  7. Continuity
    We perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones
  8. Closure
    We fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object
  9. Depth Perception
    the ability to see objects in 3D although the images that strike the retina are 2D
  10. Visual Cliff
    a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
  11. Binocular cues
    depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes
  12. Retinal Disparity
    • a binocular cue for perceiving depth
    • By comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance--the greater disparity (difference) allows us to judge distance
  13. Monocular Cues
    depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
  14. Phi Phenomenon
    an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession
  15. Perceptual Constancy
    perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change
  16. Color Constancy
    perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
  17. Perceptual Adaptation
    in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
  18. Perceptual Set
    a mental predisposition to perceive on thing and not another
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Perception and Stuff
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